Research Article

Critical State of Sand Matrix Soils

Table 1

Overall developments of CSSM with respect to soil liquefaction.


1940Casagrande [11]Introduced critical void ratio, the same void ratio where contracted loose soil and dilated dense soil approach after sheared to large strains
1956Taylor [12]Showed experimentally that dilatancy is stress dependent
1958Roscoe et al. [13]Defined critical state as the ultimate state at which a soil continues to deform at constant stress and constant void ratio
1968Schofield and Wroth [4]Brought together stress-dependent strength and dilatancy to introduce critical state soil mechanics with Cam-Clay model
1969 Castro [14]Observed three different types of stress-strain behaviour (liquefaction, limited liquefaction, and dilation) in monotonic loading tests
1975Casagrande [15]Developed steady state line from both drained and undrained tests and noticed that dense sand can be liquefying under sufficient high load
1981Poulos [16]Formalised the concept of steady state of deformation (continually deformation under four constant conditions: volume, normal effective stress, shear stress, and velocity)
1985 Poulos et al. [17]Recognised that steady-state line is useful for identifying the susceptibility of flow liquefaction
1985Been and Jefferies [18]Proposed state parameter, the void ratio difference between current state and critical state at same mean stress
1991Been et al. [19]Showed that critical state and steady state of sands are equivalent and independent of stress path, sample preparation method, and initial density