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The Scientific World Journal has retracted this article. Figures (c) and (f) were reused from Figures (c) and (d) in an article by the same authors, Kadir et al. [2].

An institutional investigation by the University of Malaya found there was no system to index and file data and images to avoid mislabeling and mishandling, which led to errors and duplication of research data. The authors did not thoroughly check the manuscript before submission.

The authors said that both images ((c) and (d)) in Figure in [1] are correct and the same as illustrated in the thesis by Kadir [3]. Panel (c) in both figures represented the same reference group (silymarin group-SY) because they ran two experiments in rats treated with different plants, but with the same reference group. This is also illustrated in Kadir’s thesis [3]. Therefore, panel (c) is correct in both Figure (c) in [1] and Figure (c) in [2]. However, Figure (f) was mistakenly uploaded in this article, which probably happened due to incorrect labelling during data collection. This is also illustrated in the thesis [3].

The authors offered to provide replacement figures, but the Editorial Board recommended retraction.

View the full Retraction here.


  1. F. A. Kadir, N. M. Kassim, M. A. Abdulla, B. Kamalidehghan, F. Ahmadipour, and W. A. Yehye, “PASS-predicted hepatoprotective activity of Caesalpinia sappan in thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rats,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2014, Article ID 301879, 12 pages, 2014.
  2. F. A. Kadir, N. M. Kassim, M. A. Abdulla, and W. A. Yehye, “Hepatoprotective role of ethanolic extract of Vitex negundo in thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in male rats,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, Article ID 739850, 9 pages, 2013.
  3. F. A. Kadir, Hepatoprotective role of vitex negundo and caesalpinia sappan in thioacetamide-induced liver injury in rats [Ph.D. thesis], University Malaya, 2014.
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 301879, 12 pages
Research Article

PASS-Predicted Hepatoprotective Activity of Caesalpinia sappan in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats

1Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
4Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Centre (NANOCAT), University of Malaya, Block 3A, Institute of Postgraduate Studies Building, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 22 October 2013; Accepted 5 January 2014; Published 20 February 2014

Academic Editors: S. G. Clark, M. Pretterklieber, and M. Tsang

Copyright © 2014 Farkaad A. Kadir et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The antifibrotic effects of traditional medicinal herb Caesalpinia sappan (CS) extract on liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA) and the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in rats were studied. A computer-aided prediction of antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities was primarily performed with the Prediction Activity Spectra of the Substance (PASS) Program. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by TAA administration (0.03% w/v) in drinking water for a period of 12 weeks. Rats were divided into seven groups: control, TAA, Silymarin (SY), and CS 300 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg groups. The effect of CS on liver fibrogenesis was determined by Masson’s trichrome staining, immunohistochemical analysis, and western blotting. In vivo determination of hepatic antioxidant activities, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), and matrix metalloproteinases (MPPS) was employed. CS treatment had significantly increased hepatic antioxidant enzymes activity in the TAA-treated rats. Liver fibrosis was greatly alleviated in rats when treated with CS extract. CS treatment was noted to normalize the expression of TGF-β1, αSMA, PCNA, MMPs, and TIMP1 proteins. PASS-predicted plant activity could efficiently guide in selecting a promising pharmaceutical lead with high accuracy and required antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties.