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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 306270, 13 pages
Research Article

New Ray Tracing Method to Investigate the Various Effects on Wave Propagation in Medical Scenario: An Application of Wireless Body Area Network

Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 13 April 2014; Revised 4 June 2014; Accepted 4 June 2014; Published 14 July 2014

Academic Editor: Jaume Anguera

Copyright © 2014 M. J. Islam et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The advent of technology with the increasing use of wireless network has led to the development of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) to continuously monitor the change of physiological data in a cost efficient manner. As numerous researches on wave propagation characterization have been done in intrabody communication, this study has given emphasis on the wave propagation characterization between the control units (CUs) and wireless access point (AP) in a hospital scenario. Ray tracing is a tool to predict the rays to characterize the wave propagation. It takes huge simulation time, especially when multiple transmitters are involved to transmit physiological data in a realistic hospital environment. Therefore, this study has developed an accelerated ray tracing method based on the nearest neighbor cell and prior knowledge of intersection techniques. Beside this, Red-Black tree is used to store and provide a faster retrieval mechanism of objects in the hospital environment. To prove the superiority, detailed complexity analysis and calculations of reflection and transmission coefficients are also presented in this paper. The results show that the proposed method is about 1.51, 2.1, and 2.9 times faster than the Object Distribution Technique (ODT), Space Volumetric Partitioning (SVP), and Angular Z-Buffer (AZB) methods, respectively. To show the various effects on received power in 60 GHz frequency, few comparisons are made and it is found that on average −9.44 dBm, −8.23 dBm, and −9.27 dBm received power attenuations should be considered when human, AP, and CU move in a given hospital scenario.