Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 309159, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/309159
Review Article

Microbial Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery by the Aid of Inhabitant Spore-Forming Bacteria: An Insight Review

1Department of Biology, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, 123 Muscat, Oman
2Petroleum and Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, 123 Muscat, Oman
3Central Analytical and Applied Research Unit, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, 123 Muscat, Oman

Received 28 August 2013; Accepted 20 October 2013; Published 16 January 2014

Academic Editors: Z. He, A. Piacentino, and H. Tsutsumi

Copyright © 2014 Biji Shibulal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. Aleklett, M. Höök, K. Jakobsson, M. Lardelli, S. Snowden, and B. Söderbergh, “The peak of the oil age—analyzing the world oil production reference scenario in world energy outlook 2008,” Energy Policy, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 1398–1414, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. W. Graus, M. Roglieri, P. Jaworski, L. Alberio, and E. Worrell, “The promise of carbon capture and storage: evaluating the capture-readiness of new EU fossil fuel power plants,” Climate Policy, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 789–812, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. Cossé, Basics of Reservoir Engineering, Pure and Applied Geophysics, Éditions Technip, 1993.
  4. C. Hall, P. Tharakan, J. Hallock, C. Cleveland, and M. Jefferson, “Hydrocarbons and the evolution of human culture,” Nature, vol. 426, no. 6964, pp. 318–322, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. S. Bryant, A. K. Stepp, K. M. Bertus, T. E. Burchfield, and M. Dennis, “Microbial-enhanced waterflooding field pilots,” Developments in Petroleum Science, vol. 39, pp. 289–306, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. W. Lake, Enhanced Oil Recovery, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 1989.
  7. I. Lazar, I. G. Petrisor, and T. F. Yen, “Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR),” Petroleum Science and Technology, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 1353–1366, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. Sen, “Biotechnology in petroleum recovery: the microbial EOR,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 714–724, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. O. Hitzman, “Microbial enhanced oil recovery—the time is now,” Developments in Petroleum Science, vol. 31, pp. 11–20, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. B. Bubela, “A comparison of strategies for enhanced oil recovery using in situ and ex situ produced biosurfactants,” Surfactant Science Series, vol. 25, pp. 143–161, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  11. G. S. Derek, “Microbiological methods for the enhancement of oil recovery,” Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 187–222, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. S. Rebeka, “Potential uses of microorganisms in petroleum recovery technology,” in Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science, 1987.
  13. R. Al-Hattali, H. Al-Sulaimani, Y. Al-Wahaibi et al., “Microbial biomass for improving sweep efficiency in fractured carbonate reservoir using date molasses as renewable feed substrate,” in Proceedings of the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 2012.
  14. H. Suthar, K. Hingurao, A. Desai, and A. Nerurkar, “Evaluation of bioemulsifier mediated microbial enhanced oil recovery using sand pack column,” Journal of Microbiological Methods, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 225–230, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. I. M. Banat, A. Franzetti, I. Gandolfi et al., “Microbial biosurfactants production, applications and future potential,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 427–444, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. K. Sarkar, J. C. Goursaud, M. M. Sharma, and G. Georgiou, “Critical evaluation of MEOR processes,” In Situ, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 207–238, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. N. Al-Bahry, Y. M. Al-Wahaibi, A. E. Elshafie et al., “Biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis B20 using date molasses and its possible application in enhanced oil recovery,” International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, vol. 81, pp. 141–146, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. Al-Sulaimani, Y. Al-Wahaibi, S. N. Al-Bahry et al., “Experimental investigation of biosurfactants produced by Bacillus species and their potential for MEOR in Omani oil field,” in Proceedings of the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia 2010 (OGWA '10), pp. 378–386, Muscat, Oman, April 2010. View at Scopus
  19. H. Al-Sulaimani, Y. Al-Wahaibi, S. Al-Bahry et al., “Optimization and partial characterization of biosurfactants produced by Bacillus species and their potential for ex-situ enhanced oil recovery,” SPE Journal, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 672–682, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. Al-Sulaimani, Y. Al-Wahaibi, S. N. Al-Bahry et al., “Residual-oil recovery through injection of biosurfactant, chemical surfactant, and mixtures of both under reservoir temperatures: induced-wettability and interfacial-tension effects,” SPE Reservoir Evaluation and Engineering, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 210–217, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Y. Al-Wahaibi, H. Al-Hadrami, S. Al-Bahry, A. Elshafie, A. Al-Bemani, and S. Joshi, “Residual oil recovery via injection of biosurfactant and chemical surfactant following hot water injection in Middle East heavy oil field,” in Proceeding of the SPE Heavy Oil Conference, Alberta, Canada, June 2013.
  22. K. Fujiwara, Y. Sugai, N. Yazawa, K. Ohno, C. X. Hong, and H. Enomoto, “Biotechnological approach for development of microbial enhanced oil recovery technique,” Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, vol. 151, pp. 405–445, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Al-Sulaimani, S. Joshi, Y. Al-Wahaibi, S. N. Al-Bahry, A. Elshafie, and A. Al-Bemani, “Microbial biotechnology for enhancing oil recovery: current developments and future prospects,” Biotechnology, Bioinformatics and Bioengineering Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 147–158, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  24. A. R. Awan, R. Teigland, and J. Kleppe, “A survey of North Sea enhanced-oil-recovery projects initiated during the years 1975 to 2005,” SPE Reservoir Evaluation and Engineering, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 497–512, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. W. Beckman, “The action of bacteria on mineral oil,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, News Edition, vol. 4, pp. 23–26, 1926. View at Google Scholar
  26. C. E. Zobell, “Bacterial release of oil from oil-bearing materials,” World Oil, vol. 126, pp. 36–47, 1947. View at Google Scholar
  27. D. M. Updegraff and G. B. Wren, “The release of oil from petroleum-bearing materials by sulfate-reducing bacteria,” Applied Microbiology, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 309–322, 1954. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. B. Davis and D. M. Updegraff, “Microbiology in the petroleum industry,” Bacteriological Reviews, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 215–238, 1954. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. M. Updegraff, “Recovery of petroleum oil,” US Patent No. 2.807.570, 1957.
  30. H. F. Yarbrough and V. F. Coty, “Microbial enhanced oil recovery from the upper crustaceous nacatoch formation,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Microbial Enhancement of Oil Recovery, 1983.
  31. S. I. Kuznetsov, M. V. Ivanov, and N. N. Lyalikowa, Introduction to Geological Microbiology, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1963.
  32. M. V. Ivanov, S. S. Belyaev, M. A. Zyakun, A. V. Bondar, and S. K. Laurinavichus, “Microbiological formation of methane in the oil field development,” Moscova, vol. 11, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  33. M. Dostálek and M. Spurny, “Bacterial release of oil. A preliminary trial in an oil deposit,” Folia Biologica, vol. 4, pp. 166–172, 1958. View at Google Scholar
  34. M. Dienes and I. Yaranyi, “Increase of oil recovery by introducing anaerobic bacteria into the formation Demjen field,” Hungary Koolaj as Fodgas, vol. 106, no. 7, pp. 205–208, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  35. I. Karaskiewicz, “The application of microbiological method for secondary oil recovery from the Carpathian crude oil reservoir,” Widawnistwo “SLASK”, pp. 1–67, 1974. View at Google Scholar
  36. D. O. Hitzman, “Review of microbial enhanced oil recovery field tests,” in Proceedings of the Applications of Microorganisms to Petroleum Technology, U.S. Department of Energy, 1988.
  37. I. Lazar, “MEOR field trials carried out over the world during the past 35 years,” in Microbial Enhancement of Oil Recovery—Recent Advances, E. C. Donaldson, Ed., 1991. View at Google Scholar
  38. I. Lazar, “International MEOR applications for marginal wells,” Pakistan Journal of Hydrocarbon Research, vol. 10, pp. 11–30, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  39. M. V. Ivanov, S. S. Belyaev, I. A. Borzenkov, I. F. Glumov, and P. B. Ibatulin, “Additional oil production during field trials in Russia,” in Microbial Enhancement of Oil Recovery—Recent Advances, E. Premuzic and A. Woodhead, Eds., 1993. View at Google Scholar
  40. J. E. Zajic, D. G. Cooper, T. R. Jack, and N. Kosaric, Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery, Penn Well Books, Tulsa, Okla, USA, 1983.
  41. T. F. Yen, State of the Art Review on Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery, NSF OIR-8405134, Los Angeles, Calif, USA, 1986.
  42. E. C. Donaldson, G. V. Chilingarian, and T. F. Yen, Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery, Elsevier, New York, NY, USA, 1989.
  43. E. A. Grula, H. H. Russell, D. Bryant, M. Kanaga, and M. Hart, “Isolation and screening of Clostridia for possible use in microbially enhanced oil recovery,” in Proceedings of the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery, Afton, Okla, USA, 1982.
  44. C. E. Zobell, “Bacteriological process for treatment of fluid-bearing earth formations,” US Patent No. 2, 413, 278, 1946.
  45. S. Joshi, C. Bharucha, S. Jha, S. Yadav, A. Nerurkar, and A. J. Desai, “Biosurfactant production using molasses and whey under thermophilic conditions,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 195–199, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. D. C. Bond, Bacteriological Method of Oil Recovery, Pure Oil Company, Rock Hill, SC, USA, 1961.
  47. D. O. Hitzman, “Microbiological secondary recovery of oil,” U.S. Patent 3, 032, 472, 1962.
  48. R. M. Knapp, M. J. McInerney, D. E. Menzie, and G. E. Jenneman, “The use of microorganisms in enhanced oil recovery,” in First Annual Report to the Department of Energy, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  49. A. C. Johnson, “Microbial oil release technique for enhanced oil recovery,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Microbiological Processes Useful in Enhanced Oil Recovery, San Diego, Calif, USA, 1979.
  50. D. O. Hitzman, “Petroleum microbiology and the history of its role in enhanced oil recovery,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Microbial Enhancement of Oil Recovery, U. S. Department of Energy, Bartlesville, Okla, USA, 1982.
  51. T. R. Jack, B. G. Thompson, and E. D. Blasio, “The potential for use of microbes in the production of heavy oil,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery, Afton, Okla, USA, 1982.
  52. R. Rountree, “Rocky mountain oil history,” Western Oil Reporter, vol. 4, p. 77, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  53. J. E. Zajic, Proceedings of the 1st International MEOR Workshop, U.S. Department of Energy Report No. DOE/BC/10852-1, 1986.
  54. R. S. Bryant and J. Douglas, “Evaluation of Microbial Systems in Porous Media for EOR,” SPE Reservoir Engineering, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 489–495, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. S. I. Kuznetsov, “Possibilities of production of methane in oil fields of Saratov and Buguruslan,” Mikrobiologiia, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 193–202, 1950. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. V. Heningen, A. J. DeHann, and J. D. Jansen, “Process for the recovery of petroleum from rocks,” Netherlands Patent 80, 580, 1958.
  57. I. Jaranyi, L. Kiss, C. Salanczy, and J. Szolnoki, “Alteration of some characteristics of oil-wells through the effects of microbial treatment,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Science Conference on Geochemistry, 1963.
  58. J. Karaskiewicz, “Studies on increasing petroleum oil recovery from Carpathian deposits using bacteria,” Nafta (Petroleum), vol. 21, pp. 144–149, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  59. I. Lazar, “Microbially enhanced oil recovery in Romania,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery, Afton, Okla, USA, 1982.
  60. M. B. Dusseault, “Comparing Venezuelan and Canadian heavy oil and tar sands,” in Proceedings of the Petroleum Society's Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Canada.
  61. H. A. Rodriguez, P. Vaca, O. Gonzalez, and M. C. de Mirabal, “Integrated study of a heavy oil reservoir in the Orinoco Belt: a field case simulation,” in Proceedings of the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, pp. 309–310, June 1997. View at Scopus
  62. S. Chopra and L. Lines, “Introduction to this special section: heavy oil,” The Leading Edge, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1104–1106, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. http://www.engineerlive.com/content/23933.
  64. http://www.mog.gov.om/english/AboutUs/TheHistoryofOilGas/tabid/117/Default.aspx.
  65. http://www.eia.gov/countries/cab.cfm?fips=MU.
  66. http://www.reportlinker.com/p0155667/oman-oil-and-Gas-Report-Q4.html.
  67. G. L. Lei, “Research and application of microbial enhanced oil recovery,” Acta Petrolei Sinica, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 56–61, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. Y. S. Peng, H. S. Ji, and C. X. Liang, Field Research of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery, Petroleum Industry Press, Beijing, China, 1997.
  69. T. S. Zhang, G. Z. Lan, L. Deng, and X. G. Deng, “Experiments on heavy oil degradation and enhancing oil recovery by microbial treatments,” Acta Petrolei Sinica, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 54–57, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. T. S. Zhang, X. Chen, G. Z. Lan, and Z. Jiang, “Microbial degradation influences on heavy oil characters and MEOR test,” in Proceedings of the 18th World Petroleum Congress, Johannesburg, South Africa, September 2005. View at Scopus
  71. L. Jinfeng, M. Lijun, M. Bozhong, L. Rulin, N. Fangtian, and Z. Jiaxi, “The field pilot of microbial enhanced oil recovery in a high temperature petroleum reservoir,” Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, vol. 48, no. 3-4, pp. 265–271, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. Wentzel, T. E. Ellingsen, H. K. Kotlar, S. B. Zotchev, and M. Throne-Holst, “Bacterial metabolism of long-chain n-alkanes,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 1209–1221, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. V. G. Grishchenkov, R. T. Townsend, T. J. McDonald, R. L. Autenrieth, J. S. Bonner, and A. M. Boronin, “Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by facultative anaerobic bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic conditions,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 889–896, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. J. S. Sabirova, M. Ferrer, D. Regenhardt, K. N. Timmis, and P. N. Golyshin, “Proteomic insights into metabolic adaptations in Alcanivorax borkumensis induced by alkane utilization,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 188, no. 11, pp. 3763–3773, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. A. Etoumi, I. El Musrati, B. El Gammoudi, and M. El Behlil, “The reduction of wax precipitation in waxy crude oils by Pseudomonas species,” Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 1241–1245, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. Binazadeh, I. A. Karimi, and Z. Li, “Fast biodegradation of long chain n-alkanes and crude oil at high concentrations with Rhodococcus sp. Moj-3449,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 195–202, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. D. H. Hao, J. Q. Lin, X. Song, J. Lin, Y. J. Su, and Y. B. Qu, “Isolation, identification, and performance studies of a novel paraffin-degrading bacterium of Gordonia amicalis LH3,” Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 61–68, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. I. M. Banat, “Biosurfactants production and possible uses in microbial enhanced oil recovery and oil pollution remediation: a review,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. Hasanuzzaman, A. Ueno, H. Ito et al., “Degradation of long-chain n-alkanes (C36 and C40) by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain WatG,” International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 40–43, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. L. Wang, Y. Tang, S. Wang et al., “Isolation and characterization of a novel thermophilic Bacillus strain degrading long-chain n-alkanes,” Extremophiles, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 347–356, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. Y. H. She, F. Zhang, J. J. Xia et al., “Investigation of biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms that enhance residue oil recovery in an oil reservoir after polymer flooding,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 163, no. 2, pp. 223–234, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. R. M. Atlas, “Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons: an environmental perspective,” Microbiological Reviews, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 180–209, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. J. G. Leahy and R. R. Colwell, “Microbial degradation of hydrocarbons in the environment,” Microbiological Reviews, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 305–315, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. R. M. Atlas and R. Bartha, “Hydrocarbon biodegradation and oil spill bioremediation,” Advances in Microbial Ecology, vol. 12, pp. 287–338, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. R. M. Atlas, Petroleum Microbiology, Macmillan, New York, NY, USA, 1984.
  86. K. O. Stetter, R. Huber, E. Blöchl et al., “Hyperthermophilic archaea are thriving in deep North Sea and Alaskan oil reservoirs,” Nature, vol. 365, no. 6448, pp. 743–745, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. C. Tardy-Jacquenod, P. Caumette, R. Matheron, C. Lanau, O. Arnauld, and M. Magot, “Characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from oil-field waters,” Canadian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 259–266, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. T. K. Ng, P. J. Weimer, and L. J. Gawel, “Possible nonanthropogenic origin of two methanogenic isolates from oil producing wells in the San Miguelito field, Ventura County, California,” Geomicrobiology Journal, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 185–192, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  89. M. E. Davey, W. A. Wood, R. Key, K. Nakamura, and D. A. Stahl, “Isolation of three species of Geotoga and Petrotoga: two new genera, representing a new lineage in the bacterial line of descent distantly related to the ‘Thermotogales’,” Systematic and Applied Microbiology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 191–200, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. G. S. Grassia, K. M. McLean, P. Glénat, J. Bauld, and A. J. Sheehy, “A systematic survey for thermophilic fermentative bacteria and archaea in high temperature petroleum reservoirs,” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 47–58, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. A. C. Greene, B. K. C. Patel, and A. J. Sheehy, “Deferribacter thermophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel thermophilic manganese- and iron-reducing bacterium isolated from a petroleum reservoir,” International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 505–509, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. A. Bahrami, S. A. Shojaosadati, and G. Mohebali, “Biodegradation of dibenzothiophene by thermophilic bacteria,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 899–901, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. Z. He, Q. Peng, and J. Chen, Biology of Thermophiles, Scientific Press, Beijing, China, 2000.
  94. J. Li, B. Lian, J. Hao, J. Zhao, and L. Zhu, “Non-parallelism between the effect of microbial flocculants on sewerage disposal and the flocculation rate,” Chinese Journal of Geochemistry, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 139–142, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. G. E. Jenneman, M. J. McInerney, R. M. Knapp et al., “A halotolerant, biosurfactant producing Bacillus species potentially useful for enhanced oil recovery,” Developments in Industrial Microbiology, vol. 24, pp. 485–492, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  96. S. N. Al-Bahry, A. Elshafie, Y. Al-Wahaibi et al., “Microbial consortia in Oman oil fields: a possible use in enhanced oil recovery,” Journal of Microbiologyand Biotechnology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 106–117, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  97. M. M. Yakimov, K. N. Timmis, V. Wray, and H. L. Fredrickson, “Characterization of a new lipopeptide surfactant produced by thermotolerant and halotolerant subsurface Bacillus licheniformis BAS50,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 1706–1713, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. S. M. M. Dastgheib, M. A. Amoozegar, E. Elahi, S. Asad, and I. M. Banat, “Bioemulsifier production by a halothermophilic Bacillus strain with potential applications in microbially enhanced oil recovery,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 263–270, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. H. Ghojavand, F. Vahabzadeh, M. Mehranian et al., “Isolation of thermotolerant, halotolerant, facultative biosurfactant-producing bacteria,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 1073–1085, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. N. Youssef, M. S. Elshahed, and M. J. McInerney, “Microbial processes in oil fields. Culprits, problems, and opportunities,” Advances in Applied Microbiology, vol. 66, pp. 141–251, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. D. R. Simpson, N. R. Natraj, M. J. McInerney, and K. E. Duncan, “Biosurfactant-producing Bacillus are present in produced brines from Oklahoma oil reservoirs with a wide range of salinities,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 1083–1093, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. D. G. Cooper, C. R. Macdonald, S. J. B. Duff, and N. Kosaric, “Enhanced production of surfactin from Bacillus subtilis by continuous product removal and metal cation additions,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 408–412, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. C. N. Mulligan, T. Y. K. Chow, and B. F. Gibbs, “Enhanced biosurfactant production by a mutant Bacillus subtilis strain,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 31, no. 5-6, pp. 486–489, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. G. Zheng and M. F. Slavik, “Isolation, partial purification and characterization of a bacteriocin produced by a newly isolated Bacillus subtilis strain,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 363–367, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. H. Feitkenhauer, R. Müller, and H. Märkl, “Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and long chain alkanes at 60–70°C by Thermus and Bacillus spp.,” Biodegradation, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 367–372, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. J. Wang, T. Ma, J. Liu et al., “Isolation of functional bacteria guided by PCR-DGGE technology from high temperature petroleum reservoirs,” Huan Jing Ke Xue, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 462–468, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. R. Hao, M. Lv, and A. Lu, “Biodegradation of crude oil in soil by Bacillus subtilis SB-1,” Current Topics in Biotechnology, vol. 6, pp. 49–55, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  108. G. Sanchez, A. Marin, L. Vierma, and T. P. Eugene, Isolation of Thermophilic Bacteria from a Venezuelan Oil Field, Developments in Petroleum Science, Elsevier, New York, NY, USA, 1993.
  109. N. A. Sorkhoh, A. S. Ibrahim, M. A. Ghannoum, and S. S. Radwan, “High-temperature hydrocarbon degradation by Bacillus stearothermophilus from oil-polluted Kuwaiti desert,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 123–126, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. T. N. Nazina, D. S. Sokolova, A. A. Grigoryan et al., “Geobacillus jurassicus sp. nov., a new thermophilic bacterium isolated from a high-temperature petroleum reservoir, and the validation of the Geobacillus species,” Systematic and Applied Microbiology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 43–53, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. T. Kato, M. Haruki, T. Imanaka, M. Morikawa, and S. Kanaya, “Isolation and characterization of psychrotrophic bacteria from oil-reservoir water and oil sands,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 794–800, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. M. L. Fardeau, B. Ollivier, B. K. C. Patel et al., “Thermotoga hypogea sp. nov., a Xylanolytic, thermophilic bacterium from an oil-producing well,” International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 1013–1019, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. G. Ravot, M. Magot, M. L. Fardeau et al., “Thermotoga elfii sp. nov., a novel thermophilic bacterium from an African oil-producing well,” International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 308–314, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Contingency Plan, Product Schedule, 2013.
  115. R. J. Portier and L. M. Basirico, Laboratory Screening of Commercial Bioremediation Agents for the Deepwater Horizon Spill Response, Department of Environmental Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, La, USA, 2011.