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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 325492, 7 pages
Research Article

Elemental Spatiotemporal Variations of Total Suspended Particles in Jeddah City

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
2Centre of Excellency in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia

Received 17 November 2013; Accepted 9 January 2014; Published 18 February 2014

Academic Editors: O. Hertel and J. Sun

Copyright © 2014 Mohammad W. Kadi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Elements associated with total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in Jeddah city were determined. Using high-volume samplers, TSP samples were simultaneously collected over a one-year period from seven sampling sites. Samples were analyzed for Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Sr. Results revealed great dependence of element contents on spatial and temporal variations. Two sites characterized by busy roads, workshops, heavy population, and heavy trucking have high levels of all measured elements. Concentrations of most elements at the two sites exhibit strong spatial gradients and concentrations of elements at these sites are higher than other locations. The highest concentrations of elements were observed during June–August because of dust storms, significant increase in energy consumption, and active surface winds. Enrichment factors of elements at the high-level sites have values in the range >10~60 while for Cu and Zn the enrichment factors are much higher (~0–>700) indicating that greater percentage of TSP composition for these three elements in air comes from anthropogenic activities.