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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 341342, 8 pages
Review Article

An Approach to Differential Diagnosis of Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome and Related Conditions

1Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, 50134 Florence, Italy
2Department of Cardiac Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, University of Padua, 35128 Padua, Italy
3SOD Patologia Medica, Center for Autoimmune Systemic Diseases, Behçet Center and Lupus Clinic, AOU Careggi Hospital, 50134 Florence, Italy

Received 14 July 2014; Accepted 1 September 2014; Published 14 October 2014

Academic Editor: Rolando Cimaz

Copyright © 2014 Giacomo Emmi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a systemic, acquired, immune-mediated disorder characterized by episodes of venous, arterial, or microcirculation thrombosis and/or pregnancy abnormalities, associated with the persistent presence of autoantibodies, confirmed at least in two occasions 12 weeks apart, directed to molecular complexes consisting of phospholipids and proteins. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome should always be considered as a potential diagnosis especially for young patients presenting with a history of thrombotic events, in particular when they occur without any obvious external trigger or any inherited thrombophilic mutation (even if 2006 criteria do not exclude antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in patients with other inherited or acquired prothrombotic conditions), or for women with recurrent pregnancy losses or later fetal deaths. Many other disorders are able to mimic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, so a broad range of alternative diagnoses should be investigated and ruled out during clinical workup.