Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 345939, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/345939
Research Article

Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Solanum nigrum Linn. Leaves in Rat Models of Oral Mucositis

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka 576104, India

Received 3 July 2014; Revised 30 October 2014; Accepted 30 October 2014; Published 20 November 2014

Academic Editor: Thomas Efferth

Copyright © 2014 Alkesh Patel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. T. Sonis, “New thoughts on the initiation of mucositis,” Oral Diseases, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 597–600, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. T. Sonis, “The pathobiology of mucositis,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 277–284, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. U. R. Naidu, G. V. Ramana, P. U. Rani, I. K. Mohan, A. Suman, and P. Roy, “Chemotherapy-induced and/or radiation therapy-induced oral mucositis-complicating the treatment of cancer,” Neoplasia, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 423–431, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. E. Peterson and A. Cariello, “Mucosal damage: a major risk factor for severe complications after cytotoxic therapy,” Seminars in Oncology, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 35–44, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. J. Knox, A. L. V. Puodziunas, and R. Feld, “Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: prevention and management,” Drugs and Aging, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 257–267, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S.-B. Woo, S. T. Sonis, M. M. Monopoli, and A. L. Sonis, “A longitudinal study of oral ulcerative mucositis in bone marrow transplant recipients,” Cancer, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 1612–1617, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. W. Xu, A. D. Towers, P. Li, and J.-P. Collet, “Traditional Chinese medicine in cancer care: perspectives and experiences of patients and professionals in China,” European Journal of Cancer Care, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 397–403, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. X. Cui, Y. Wang, N. Kokudo, D. Fang, and W. Tang, “Traditional Chinese medicine and related active compounds against hepatitis B virus infection,” BioScience Trends, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 39–47, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. Yazbeck and G. S. Howarth, “Complementary medicines: emerging therapies for intestinal mucositis,” Cancer Biology & Therapy, vol. 8, no. 17, pp. 1629–1631, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. An, J.-T. Tang, X.-M. Liu, and N.-N. Gao, “Review about mechanisms of anti-cancer of Solanum nigrum,” Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, vol. 31, no. 15, pp. 1225–1260, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Z. A. Zakaria, H. K. Gopalan, H. Zainal et al., “Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of Solanum nigrum chloroform extract in animal models,” Yakugaku Zasshi, vol. 126, no. 11, pp. 1171–1178, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. M. Lin, H. C. Tseng, C. J. Wang, J. J. Lin, C. W. Lo, and F. P. Chou, “Hepatoprotective effects of Solanum nigrum Linn extract against CCl4-iduced oxidative damage in rats,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 171, no. 3, pp. 283–293, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. K. Kokate, C. K. Purohit, and S. B. Gokhale, “Phytochemical tests,” in Pharmacognosy, pp. 510–512, Nirali Prakashan, Pune, India, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  14. H.-C. Huang, K.-Y. Syu, and J.-K. Lin, “Chemical composition of Solanum nigrum Linn extract and induction of autophagy by leaf water extract and its major flavonoids in AU565 breast cancer cells,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 58, no. 15, pp. 8699–8708, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Patel, S. Rajesh, V. M. Chandrashekhar et al., “A rat model against chemotherapy plus radiation-induced oral mucositis,” Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 399–403, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. Q. Coquerel, M. H. Sinno, N. Boukhettala et al., “Intestinal inflammation influences α-MSH reactive autoantibodies: relevance to food intake and body weight,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 94–106, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. G. S. Howarth, G. L. Francis, J. C. Cool, X. Xu, R. W. Byard, and L. C. Read, “Milk growth factors enriched from cheese whey ameliorate intestinal damage by methotrexate when administered orally to rats,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 126, no. 10, pp. 2519–2530, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Leblond, F. Le Pessot, A. Hubert-Buron et al., “Chemotherapy-induced mucositis is associated with changes in proteolytic pathways,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 233, no. 2, pp. 219–228, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. S. Parkins, J. F. Fowler, and S. Yu, “A murine model of lip epidermal/mucosal reactions to X-irradiation,” Radiotherapy and Oncology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 159–165, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. M. Dose, “The symptom experience of mucositis, stomatitis, and xerostomia,” Seminars in Oncology Nursing, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 248–255, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. Spielberger, P. Stiff, W. Bensinger et al., “Palifermin for oral mucositis after intensive therapy for hematologic cancers,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 351, no. 25, pp. 2590–2598, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Zhao, K.-A. Kim, J. de Vera, S. Palencia, M. Wagle, and A. Abo, “R-Spondin1 protects mice from chemotherapy or radiation-induced oral mucositis through the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 7, pp. 2331–2336, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. W. Hong, Y. S. Si, S. K. Yeon et al., “Therapeutic effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) on mucositis in patients undergoing radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, for head and neck cancer: a double-blind placebo-controlled prospective phase 2 multi-institutional clinical trial,” Cancer, vol. 115, no. 16, pp. 3699–3708, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. H. Wright, R. Yazbeck, K. A. Lymn et al., “The herbal extract, Iberogast, improves jejunal integrity in rats with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced mucositis,” Cancer Biology & Therapy, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 923–929, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. A. Izzo, G. di Carlo, N. Mascolo, F. Capasso, and G. Autore, “Antiulcer effect of flavonoids. Role of endogenous PAF,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 179–181, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. F. Borrelli and A. A. Izzo, “The plant kingdom as a source of anti-ulcer remedies,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 581–591, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  27. K. Y. Cheah, G. S. Howarth, R. Yazbeck et al., “Grape seed extract protects IEC-6 cells from chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity and improves parameters of small intestinal mucositis in rats with experimentally-induced mucositis,” Cancer Biology & Therapy, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 382–390, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Vissink, J. Jansma, F. K. L. Spijkervet, F. R. Burlage, and R. P. Coppes, “Oral sequelae of head and neck radiotherapy,” Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 199–212, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. J. Sciubba and D. Goldenberg, “Oral complications of radiotherapy,” Lancet Oncology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 175–183, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus