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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 367013, 9 pages
Research Article

Realistic Facial Expression of Virtual Human Based on Color, Sweat, and Tears Effects

1Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 3rd Floor, N28A, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
2Interactive Media and Human Interface Lab., Department of Informatics, Faculty of Information Technology, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
3Faculty of Computing and Information Technology Rabigh, King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh, Makkah 21911, Saudi Arabia

Received 28 February 2014; Revised 21 June 2014; Accepted 4 July 2014; Published 17 July 2014

Academic Editor: Zhao Zhang

Copyright © 2014 Mohammed Hazim Alkawaz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics.