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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 369593, 9 pages
Research Article

Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Rectangular Heated Pipe for Turbulent Nanofluid

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Young Researchers and Elite Club, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch, Mashhad, Iran

Received 23 April 2014; Revised 16 July 2014; Accepted 25 July 2014; Published 26 August 2014

Academic Editor: Mohammed Hasnaoui

Copyright © 2014 Hooman Yarmand et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Thermal characteristics of turbulent nanofluid flow in a rectangular pipe have been investigated numerically. The continuity, momentum, and energy equations were solved by means of a finite volume method (FVM). The symmetrical rectangular channel is heated at the top and bottom at a constant heat flux while the sides walls are insulated. Four different types of nanoparticles Al2O3, ZnO, CuO, and SiO2 at different volume fractions of nanofluids in the range of 1% to 5% are considered in the present investigation. In this paper, effect of different Reynolds numbers in the range of 5000 < Re < 25000 on heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids flowing through the channel is investigated. The numerical results indicate that SiO2-water has the highest Nusselt number compared to other nanofluids while it has the lowest heat transfer coefficient due to low thermal conductivity. The Nusselt number increases with the increase of the Reynolds number and the volume fraction of nanoparticles. The results of simulation show a good agreement with the existing experimental correlations.