Figure 1: Extending over ~14 billion years from the big bang (left) to the present (right), an “arrow of time” symbolically represents the grand sweep of cosmic evolution, an interdisciplinary synthesis of all the natural sciences. Cosmic evolution generally integrates the three phases of physical, biological, and cultural evolution (top) and specifically includes the “big history” of our galaxy, star, and planet, as well as of life, humanity, and civilization (bottom). Despite this arrowhead sketch, there is no directionality implied for the evolutionary process, nor any purpose, plan, or design evident in the data supporting it.