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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 432740, 6 pages
Research Article

The Theoretical Limits of Watermark Spread Spectrum Sequence

1College of Computer, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
2School of Computer and Information Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China

Received 30 August 2013; Accepted 2 March 2014; Published 23 March 2014

Academic Editors: J. Shu and F. Yu

Copyright © 2014 Nan Jiang and Jian Wang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


At present, the spread spectrum (SS) sequences used in watermark include i.i.d. random sequences and the sequences used in SS communications. They appear earlier than digital watermark. Almost no researchers pay attention to whether they are really fit for watermark. In this paper, we compare the SS watermark channel and the traditional SS communication channel. We find out that their correlation property is different. Considering cropping and translation attacks, we define watermark auto- and cross-correlation and propose Loose Autocorrelation and Tight Cross-Correlation (LAC&TCC) properties for SS watermark. The LAC&TCC properties are that, whether or not synchronized, the autocorrelation is equal or close to 1 and the cross-correlation is equal or close to 0. Accordingly, the peak correlation is divided into the peak autocorrelation and the peak cross-correlation . We establish the lower bound of and the higher bound of , respectively. The two bounds indicate that, no matter how small the cover is reserved, the extractor can always find a threshold to distinguish auto- and cross-correlation in theory.