Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 467462, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/467462
Research Article

Zone Specific Fractal Dimension of Retinal Images as Predictor of Stroke Incidence

1School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, 124 Latrobe Street, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
2Department of Optometry and Visual Science, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences (KAHS), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
3Department of Public Health, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990-9585, Japan
4Centre for Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology and Westmead Millennium Institute, University of Sydney, 176 Hawkesbury Road, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia

Received 21 July 2014; Revised 21 October 2014; Accepted 3 November 2014; Published 18 November 2014

Academic Editor: Sandra C. Fuchs

Copyright © 2014 Behzad Aliahmad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Y. Wong and P. Mitchell, “Hypertensive retinopathy,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 351, no. 22, pp. 2310–2317, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. N. Patton, T. Aslam, T. MacGillivray, A. Pattie, I. J. Deary, and B. Dhillon, “Retinal vascular image analysis as a potential screening tool for cerebrovascular disease: a rationale based on homology between cerebral and retinal microvasculatures,” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 206, no. 4, pp. 319–348, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. N. Cheung, K. C. Donaghue, G. Liew et al., “Quantitative assessment of early diabetic retinopathy using fractal analysis,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 106–110, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. Leishman, “The eye in general vascular disease: hypertension and arteriosclerosis,” The British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 41, pp. 641–701, 1957. View at Google Scholar
  5. T. Y. Wong, R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, J. M. Tielsch, L. Hubbard, and F. J. Nieto, “Retinal microvascular abnormalities and their relationship with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and mortality,” Survey of Ophthalmology, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 59–80, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. Kawasaki, M. Z. Che Azemin, D. K. Kumar et al., “Fractal dimension of the retinal vasculature and risk of stroke: a nested case-control study,” Neurology, vol. 76, no. 20, pp. 1766–1767, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. L. Baker, P. J. Hand, J. J. Wang, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal signs and stroke: revisiting the link between the eye and brain,” Stroke, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 1371–1379, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, L. Sherry et al., “Generalized retinal arteriolar narrowing predicts 5-year cardio-vascular and cerebro-vascular mortality: findings from the blue mountains eye study,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 43, E-abstract 4396, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  9. X. Zhao, W. Duan, T. Lin, and B. Li, “A method of retinal vessel width measurement,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Computer and Automation Engineering ICCAE '10), pp. 443–446, February 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. D. Abramoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Retinal imaging and image analysis,” IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering, vol. 3, pp. 169–208, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. L. Goldberger, “Non-linear dynamics for clinicians: chaos theory, fractals, and complexity at the bedside,” The Lancet, vol. 347, no. 9011, pp. 1312–1314, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Wainwright, G. Liew, G. Burlutsky et al., “Effect of image quality, color, and format on the measurement of retinal vascular fractal dimension,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 5525–5529, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. B. R. Masters, “Fractal analysis of the vascular tree in the human retina,” Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, vol. 6, pp. 427–452, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Avakian, R. E. Kalina, E. H. Sage et al., “Fractal analysis of region-based vascular change in the normal and non-proliferative diabetic retina,” Current Eye Research, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 274–280, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. F. N. Doubal, T. J. MacGillivray, N. Patton, B. Dhillon, M. S. Dennis, and J. M. Wardlaw, “Fractal analysis of retinal vessels suggests that a distinct vasculopathy causes lacunar stroke,” Neurology, vol. 74, no. 14, pp. 1102–1107, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Z. C. Azemin, D. K. Kumar, T. Y. Wong, R. Kawasaki, P. Mitchell, and J. J. Wang, “Robust methodology for fractal analysis of the retinal vasculature,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 243–250, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, H. Leung, E. Rochtchina, T. Y. Wong, and R. Klein, “Hypertensive retinal vessel wall signs in a general older population: the Blue Mountains Eye Study,” Hypertension, vol. 42, pp. 534–541, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. Mitchell, W. Smith, and K. Attebo, “Prevalence of age-related maculopathy in Australia. The blue mountains eye study,” Ophthalmology, vol. 102, no. 10, pp. 1450–1460, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. P. Mitchell, J. J. Wang, T. Y. Wong, W. Smith, R. Klein, and S. R. Leeder, “Retinal microvascular signs and risk of stroke and stroke mortality,” Neurology, vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 1005–1009, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Z. CheAzemin, D. K. Kumar, T. Y. Wong, J. J. Wang, R. Kawasaki, and P. Mitchell, “Retinal stroke prediction using logistic-based fusion of multiscale fractal analysis,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST '10), pp. 125–128, July 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. V. B. Soares, J. J. G. Leandro, R. M. Cesar Jr., H. F. Jelinek, and M. J. Cree, “Retinal vessel segmentation using the 2-D Gabor wavelet and supervised classification,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 1214–1222, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Higuchi, “Approach to an irregular time series on the basis of the fractal theory,” Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 277–283, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  23. H. Ahammer, “Higuchi dimension of digital images,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 9, Article ID e24796, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Z. C. Azemin, D. K. Kumar, T. Y. Wong et al., “Age-related rarefaction in the fractal dimension of retinal vessel,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 194.e1–194.e4, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. B. de Mendonca, C. A. de Amorim, A. Garcia, M. A. Gomes, M. M. Valenca, and F. Orefice, “Fractal analysis of retinal vascular tree: segmentation and estimation methods,” ABO—Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, vol. 70, pp. 413–422, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  26. M. Z. Che Azemin, D. K. Kumar, B. Aliahmad, and H. Hao, “Loss of calibre information during vessel segmentation,” in Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE-EMBS Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (IECBES '12), pp. 668–672, Langkawi, Malaysia, December 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. A. Lipsitz and A. L. Goldberger, “Loss of “complexity” and aging: potential applications of fractals and chaos theory to senescence,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 267, no. 13, pp. 1806–1809, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Kyriazis, “Practical applications of chaos theory to the modulation of human ageing: nature prefers chaos to regularity,” Biogerontology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 75–90, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. M. Pikkujämsä, T. H. Mäkikallio, L. B. Sourander et al., “Cardiac interbeat interval dynamics from childhood to senescence: comparison of conventional and new measures based on fractals and chaos theory,” Circulation, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 393–399, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Schierwagen, “Dendritic branching patterns,” in Chaos in Biological System, vol. 138 of NATO ASI Series, pp. 191–193, Springer, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  31. D. T. Kaplan, M. I. Furman, S. M. Pincus, S. M. Ryan, L. A. Lipsitz, and A. L. Goldberger, “Aging and the complexity of cardiovascular dynamics,” Biophysical Journal, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 945–949, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Y. Kresh and A. I. Izrailtyan, “Evolution in functional complexity of heart rate dynamics: a measure of cardiac allograft adaptability,” American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, vol. 275, no. 3, pp. R720–R727, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. E. Skinner, “Low-dimensional chaos in biological systems,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 596–600, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus