Table 2: Examples of PEM fuel cells for UAV applications.

Specifications from manufacturers’ websites and [18]
Fuel typeManufacturer/modelFC weight
FC power
FC power density

Chemical hydride cartridgeHorizon Energy Systems/AEROPAK3.520057.14IAI Bird Eye 650 LE UAV
10 A-21 V nominal. 600 W with LiPo batteries. Cartridge Type I: 446 Wh/kg. Type II: 607 Wh/kg.
Also used in Bluebird Boomerang mini-UAV and Elbit Skylark UAV.

Sodium borohydrideProtonex/UAV C-2501.2250208.33500 W peak power with batteries. Fuel 833 Wh/kg hydrated. Cartridge 1.8 kg, 1.5 l.

Compressed H2Protonex/Spider Lion UAV (NRL)1.779553.67Spider Lion Micro-UAV 2005, 3-hour flight

Compressed H2Protonex/Ion Tiger UAV (NRL)1550550Ion Tiger UAV. 550 W FC (1 kg + 3.6 kg tank 0.5 kg H2), 26 h 1 m flight record in 2009.
Powerplant total weight (including fuel and cooling) = 6 kg. Specific energy 1300 Wh/kg. 26 h endurance

Compressed H2EnergyOr/EO-310-XLE3.9531078.48Radiant Coral Technologies demonstrator UAV 1st flight February 25, 2013.
Hybrid. The weight includes auxiliary systems

Compressed H2EnergyOr/EO-210-XLE3.6525068.49The weight includes auxiliary systems

Compressed H2DLR/HyFish UAV31000333.33HyFish UAV 2007. 0.5 hour flight

Compressed H2UTRC/Gen11.781200674.16Helicopter UAV (October 11, 2009). FC (675 W/kg). Powerplant (500 W/kg). Minicopter Maxi Joker. 20 m flight

Compressed H2BCS/BCS5006.3550078.74Georgia Tech University UAV 2006. Powerplant weight 12 kg

Compressed H2Horizon Energy Systems/H-1001.3610073.53Johannesburg University Piper Cub UAV

Sodium borohydrideProtonex/ProCore VI 0.4088001960.78Aerovironment Puma UAV 2008. Endurance 9 h

Compressed H2Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies5650130Pterosoar micro-UAV 2008. Oklahoma State and California State Universities. 15.5 h endurance. FC 480 Wh/kg

Liquid H2NASA/Sensor Technology/AerovironmentAerovironment Global Observer (GO-1). 65,000 ft alt., 7-day endurance. PL 180 kg