Table 1: Reviewed optimization methods consider either sequential or holistic approach.

Sequential approach Holistic approach
Optimization method Treatment 
strategy
Section 
selection

Selection based 
on ranking
JudgmentA20
Pavement conditionA19
Economic analysisA20A8, A20

Mathematical 
optimization 
methods
Linear and nonlinear programmingA12A1A6, A13
Integer programmingA16A17A9, A22
Dynamic programmingA8A7, A11A23

Near optimization 
or heuristic methods
Incremental benefit/cost analysisA18A2, A18
Local search heuristicsA5, A21
Evolutionary algorithmsA11A3, A7A4, A14

Other optimization methodsNeural networksA10
Fuzzy logicA15

Note. Code reference (A1, A2, …, A23) is defined in Table 2.