Table 6: Opportunities and measures for energy savings in wood furniture industry [27].

ElectricityGeneral measures(i) Switching off equipment when not in use
(ii) Load management and demand control
(iii) Power factor correction
(iv) Replacement of old transformers
(v) Tariff system
Electric motors (i) Using efficient belt drives
(ii) Replacing old and using high efficiency motors
(iii) Replacing overrated motors
(iv) Variable speed drives
Lighting (i) Replacement and use of efficient lamps, ballasts and luminaries
(ii) Lighting controls
(iii) Using daylight
(iv) Lighting maintenance
Compressed air (i) COMPRESSED AIR PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION (selection of a compressor and adequate control system, adjusting working pressure, heat recovery from hot compressed air, choosing proper location for installing a compressor, sizing of the compressor suction line, air dryer selection, equipment maintenance)
(ii) COMPRESSED AIR DISTRIBUTION (leakage prevention and minimization, proper design, and selection of receivers, proper dimensioning of lines)
(iii) COMPRESSED AIR USAGE (prevention of improper usage, filtration and lubrication, equipment maintenance, usage of efficient air guns)
Dust collection and transport system (i) Proper design and construction of hoods-control of air velocity in the pipe
(ii) Proper sizing of pneumatic pipelines, selection of standard system components, and proper location of their placement
(iii) Balancing pneumatic network lines
(iv) Replacing the overrating fans
(v) Selecting high efficiency fans
(vi) Improving the energy efficiency of fan’s electric motor drive
(vii) Leakage repair
(viii) Proper maintenance of components (motors and fans, separators, etc.) and whole system (leakage prevention)
HeatBoilers (heat generation) (i) Proper boiler sizing
(ii) Proper selection and construction of the system for the supply of waste wood material
(iii) Proper selection and construction of a firebox
(iv) Control of combustion process (control and reduction of excess air, proper mixing of fuel and air, control of the combustible gas residence time), improved boiler insulation,
(v) Boiler maintenance
(vi) Reducing heat loss in flue gases (minimizing flue gas outlet temperature, minimizing the amount of flue gas output, reducing air infiltration)
(vii) Regeneration of waste heat from flue gasses (using economizers)
(viii) Condensate return (steam systems)
(ix) Blow-down heat recovery and so forth
Hot water or
steam distribution
(i) Insulation improvement
(ii) Insulation maintenance
(iii) Steam tarp replacement and maintenance (steam systems)
(iv) Leakage reduction
(v) Recovering flash steam (steam systems)
(vi) Electronic control and so forth
Heat use—space heating (i) Adjustment and control of heating temperature
(ii) Building insulation
(iii) Compressor waste heat usage
Heat use—process heating (dryers)(i) Controlling drying process parameters
(ii) Controlling the amount and distribution of timber in a dryer
(iii) Installation of a recuperator in the ventilation system
(iv) Insulation of kilns and so forth