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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 617032, 7 pages
Review Article

Effect of Cytokines on Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption during Mechanical Force Loading of the Periodontal Membrane

1Division of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Department of Translational Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, 4-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575, Japan
2Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8588, Japan

Received 31 August 2013; Accepted 20 November 2013; Published 19 January 2014

Academic Editors: E. L. Hooghe-Peters, C. Rosales, and H. Taki

Copyright © 2014 Hideki Kitaura et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Mechanical force loading exerts important effects on the skeleton by controlling bone mass and strength. Several in vivo experimental models evaluating the effects of mechanical loading on bone metabolism have been reported. Orthodontic tooth movement is a useful model for understanding the mechanism of bone remodeling induced by mechanical loading. In a mouse model of orthodontic tooth movement, TNF-α was expressed and osteoclasts appeared on the compressed side of the periodontal ligament. In TNF-receptor-deficient mice, there was less tooth movement and osteoclast numbers were lower than in wild-type mice. These results suggest that osteoclast formation and bone resorption caused by loading forces on the periodontal ligament depend on TNF-α. Several cytokines are expressed in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic tooth movement. Studies have found that inflammatory cytokines such as IL-12 and IFN-γ strongly inhibit osteoclast formation and tooth movement. Blocking macrophage colony-stimulating factor by using anti-c-Fms antibody also inhibited osteoclast formation and tooth movement. In this review we describe and discuss the effect of cytokines in the periodontal ligament on osteoclast formation and bone resorption during mechanical force loading.