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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 646840, 11 pages
Research Article

Hierarchical Order of Influence of Mix Variables Affecting Compressive Strength of Sustainable Concrete Containing Fly Ash, Copper Slag, Silica Fume, and Fibres

1Department of Civil Engineering, Regional Centre of Anna University, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu 627007, India
2Department of Civil Engineering, Sudharsan Engineering College, Pudukkottai, Tamil Nadu 622501, India

Received 15 October 2013; Accepted 26 December 2013; Published 20 February 2014

Academic Editors: K. Kabiri and J. Zheng

Copyright © 2014 Sakthieswaran Natarajan and Ganesan Karuppiah. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Experiments have been conducted to study the effect of addition of fly ash, copper slag, and steel and polypropylene fibres on compressive strength of concrete and to determine the hierarchical order of influence of the mix variables in affecting the strength using cluster analysis experimentally. While fly ash and copper slag are used for partial replacement of cement and fine aggregate, respectively, defined quantities of steel and polypropylene fibres were added to the mixes. It is found from the experimental study that, in general, irrespective of the presence or absence of fibres, (i) for a given copper slag-fine aggregate ratio, increase in fly ash-cement ratio the concrete strength decreases and with the increase in copper slag-sand ratio also the rate of strength decrease and (ii) for a given fly ash-cement ratio, increase in copper slag-fine aggregate ratio increases the strength of the concrete. From the cluster analysis, it is found that the quantities of coarse and fine aggregate present have high influence in affecting the strength. It is also observed that the quantities of fly ash and copper slag used as substitutes have equal “influence” in affecting the strength. Marginal effect of addition of fibres in the compression strength of concrete is also revealed by the cluster analysis.