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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 647512, 9 pages
Research Article

Thermodynamic, Kinetic, and Equilibrium Parameters for the Removal of Lead and Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions with Calcium Alginate Beads

1Instituto de Investigaciones Químico Biológicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, CP 58060, Edif. B1., CU, Morelia, MICH, Mexico
2Facultad de Químico Farmacobiología, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Tzintzuntzan 173 Col. Matamoros, CP 58240, Morelia, MICH, Mexico

Received 31 August 2013; Accepted 27 October 2013; Published 27 January 2014

Academic Editors: S. Khoufi and Y. Xu

Copyright © 2014 Ruth Alfaro-Cuevas-Villanueva et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The sorption of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by calcium alginate beads (CAB) from aqueous solutions in batch systems was investigated. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters, as well as the sorption capacities of CAB in each system at different temperatures, were evaluated. The rate of sorption for both metals was rapid in the first 10 minutes and reached a maximum in 50 minutes. Sorption kinetic data were fitted to Lagergren, pseudo-second-order and Elovich models and it was found that the second-order kinetic model describes these data for the two metals; comparing kinetic parameters for Cd and Pb sorption a higher kinetic rate () for Pb was observed, indicating that the interaction between lead cations and alginate beads was faster than for cadmium. Similarly, isotherm data were fitted to different models reported in literature and it was found that the Langmuir-Freundlich (L-F) and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models describe the isotherms in all cases. CAB sorption capacity for cadmium was 27.4 mg/g and 150.4 mg/g for lead, at 25°C. Sorption capacities of Cd and Pb increase as temperature rises. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the cadmium and lead adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. It was also found that pH has an important effect on the adsorption of these metals by CAB, as more were removed at pH values between 6 and 7.