Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 681369, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/681369
Research Article

Differential Effects of Lichens versus Liverworts Epiphylls on Host Leaf Traits in the Tropical Montane Rainforest, Hainan Island, China

1The Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Global Changes, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
2School of Environmental Science and Safety Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384, China
3Department of Environmental Studies, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA
4Center for Tropical Plant Conservation, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Coral Gables, Miami, FL 33156, USA
5Key Laboratory of Coastal Biology & Bioresources Utilization, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Yantai 264003, China

Received 24 March 2014; Accepted 28 April 2014; Published 4 June 2014

Academic Editor: Marian Brestic

Copyright © 2014 Lingyan Zhou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. O. L. Lange, W. Beyschlag, and J. D. Tenhumen, “Control of leaf carbon assimilation-input of chemical energy into ecosystems,” in Potentials and Limiatations of Ecosystem Analysis, E. D. Schulze and H. Zwlfer, Eds., pp. 149–163, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  2. L. Poorter, “Growth responses of 15 rain-forest tree species to a light gradient: the relative importance of morphological and physiological traits,” Functional Ecology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 396–410, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. M. A. Rozendaal, V. Hurtado, and L. Poorter, “Plasticity in leaf traits of 38 tropical tree species in response to light; relationships with light demand and adult stature,” Functional Ecology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 207–216, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Trewavas, “What is plant behaviour?” Plant, Cell and Environment, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 606–616, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. Lücking, Additions and Corrections to the Knowledge of the Foliicolous Lichen Flora of Costa Rica: The Family Gomphillaceae, J. Cramer, Berlin, Germany, 1997.
  6. R. Lücking, “Ecology of foliicolous lichens at the “Botarrama” trail (Costa Rica), a neotropical rainforest. IV. Species associations, their salient features and their dependence on environmental variables,” The Lichenologist, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 269–289, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. S. Rogers, E. Clark, G. Cirvilleri, and S. E. Lindow, “Cloning and characterization of genes conferring copper resistance in epiphytic ice nucleation-active Pseudomonas syringae strains,” Phytopathology, vol. 84, no. 9, pp. 891–897, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. K. Berrie and J. M. O. Eze, “The relationship between an epiphyllous liverwort and host leaves,” Annals of Botany, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 955–963, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. B. L. Bentley and E. J. Carpenter, “Direct transfer of newly-fixed nitrogen from free-living epiphyllous microorganisms to their host plant,” Oecologia, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 52–56, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. A. Anthony, J. A. M. Holtum, and B. R. Jackes, “Shade acclimation of rainforest leaves to colonization by lichens,” Functional Ecology, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 808–816, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. D. Coley and T. A. Kursar, “Anti-herbivore defenses of young tropical leaves: physiological constraints and ecological trade-offs,” in Tropical Forest Plant Ecophysiology, S. S. Mulkey, R. L. Chazdon, and A. P. Smith, Eds., pp. 305–336, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. P. D. Coley, T. A. Kursar, and J. L. Machado, “Colonization of tropical rain-forest leaves by epiphylls—effects of site and host plant leaf lifetime,” Ecology, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 619–623, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. J. P. Roskoski, “Epiphyll dynamics of a tropical understory,” Oikos, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 252–256, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. L. -Y. Zhou, Z. -S. Wang, S. -N. Chen et al., “Advances in researches on ecological epiphylls,” Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 993–1002, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  15. T. Green and O. Lange, “Photosynthesis in poikilohydric plants: a comparison of lichens and bryophytes,” in Ecophysiology of Photosynthesis, pp. 319–341, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  16. A. Pinokiyo, K. P. Singh, and J. S. Singh, “Leaf-colonizing lichens: their diversity, ecology and future prospects,” Current Science, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 509–518, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. Pócs, “Epiphyllous liverwort diversity at worldwide level and its threat and conservation,” Anales del Instituto de Biología Serie Botánica, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 109–127, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  18. B. L. Bentley, “Nitrogen fixation by epiphylls in a tropical rainforest,” Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 234–241, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. B. L. Bentley and E. J. Carpenter, “Effects of desiccation and rehydration on nitrogen fixation by epiphylls in a tropical rainforest,” Microbial Ecology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 109–113, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. E. Freiberg, “Microclimatic parameters influencing nitrogen fixation in the phyllosphere in a Costa Rican premontane rain forest,” Oecologia, vol. 117, no. 1-2, pp. 9–18, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. Palmqvist and L. Dahlman, “Responses of the green algal foliose lichen Platismatia glauca to increased nitrogen supply,” New Phytologist, vol. 171, no. 2, pp. 343–356, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. W. Wanek and K. Pörtl, “Phyllosphere nitrogen relations: reciprocal transfer of nitrogen between epiphyllous liverworts and host plants in the understorey of a lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica,” New Phytologist, vol. 166, no. 2, pp. 577–588, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. P. Roskoski, “N2 fixation (C2H2 reduction) by epiphylls on coffee, Coffea arabica,” Microbial Ecology, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 349–355, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. R. L. Chazdon and N. Fetcher, “Photosynthetic light environments in a lowland tropical rain forest in Costa Rica,” Journal of Ecology, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 553–564, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. B. Clark, D. A. Clark, and M. H. Grayum, “Leaf demography of a neotropical rain forest cycad, Zamia skinneri (Zamiaceae),” The American Journal of Botany, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 28–33, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. F. Oberbauer, D. A. Clark, D. B. Clark, and M. Quesada, “Comparative-analysis of photosynthetic light environments within the crowns of juvenile rain-forest trees,” Tree Physiology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 13–23, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. S. F. Oberbauer, D. B. Clark, and M. Quesada, “Crown light environments of saplings of two species of rain forest emergent trees,” Oecologia, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 207–212, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. L. Chazdon, R. W. Pearcy, D. W. Lee, and N. Fetcher, “Photosynthetic responses of tropical forest plants to contrasting light environments,” in Tropical Forest Plant Ecophysiology, S. S. Mulkey, R. L. Chazdon, and A. P. Smith, Eds., pp. 5–55, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. H. Lambers, F. S. Chapin, and T. L. Pons, Plant Physiological Ecology, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1998.
  30. J. Monge-Najera, “The relationship of epiphyllous liverworts with leaf characteristics and light in Monte Verde, Costa Rica,” Cryptogamie, Bryologie, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 345–352, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  31. M. Sonnleitner, S. Dullinger, W. Wanek, and H. Zechmeister, “Microclimatic patterns correlate with the distribution of epiphyllous bryophytes in a tropical lowland rain forest in Costa Rica,” Journal of Tropical Ecology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 321–330, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Z. Zhou, Y.-D. Li, M.-X. Lin et al., “Change characteristics of thermal factors in tropical mountain rainforest area of Jianfen-gling, Hainan Island in 1980–2005,” Chinese Journal of Ecology, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 1006–1012, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. W. Yang, F. Liu, L. Zhou, S. Zhang, and S. An, “Growth and photosynthetic responses of Canarium pimela and Nephelium topengii seedlings to a light gradient,” Agroforestry Systems, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 507–516, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. I. Arnon, “Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts—polyphenoloxidase in beta-vulgaris,” Plant Physiology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 1949. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. S. Linder, “A proposal for the use of standardised methods for chlorophyll determination in ecological and ecophysiological investigations,” Physiologia Plantarum, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 154–156, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. J. M. O. Eze and G. K. Berrie, “Further investigations into the physiological relationship between an Epiphyllous Liverwort and its host leaves,” Annals of Botany, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 351–358, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. L. Prioul and P. Chartier, “Partitioning of transfer and carboxylation components of intracellular resistance to photosynthetic CO2 fixation: a critical analysis of the methods used,” Annals of Botany, vol. 41, no. 174, pp. 789–800, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. I. Klein, T. M. Dejong, S. A. Weinbaum, and T. T. Muraoka, “Specific leaf weight and nitrogen allocation responses to light exposure within Walnut trees,” Hortscience, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 183–185, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  39. H. Poorter, Ü. Niinemets, L. Poorter, I. J. Wright, and R. Villar, “Causes and consequences of variation in leaf mass per area (LMA): a meta-analysis,” New Phytologist, vol. 182, no. 3, pp. 565–588, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. Ü. Niinemets, “Role of foliar nitrogen in light harvesting and shade tolerance of four temperate deciduous woody species,” Functional Ecology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 518–531, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. B. Walters, E. L. Kruger, and P. B. Reich, “Growth, biomass distribution and CO2 exchange of northern hardwood seedlings in high and low light: relationships with successional status and shade tolerance,” Oecologia, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 7–16, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. W. Rogers and A. Barnes, “Leaf demography of the rainforest shrub Wilkiea macrophylla and its implications for the ecology of foliicolous lichens,” Australian Journal of Ecology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 341–345, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. T. Ivey and N. Desilva, “A test of the function of drip tips,” Biotropica, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 188–191, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Marschall and M. C. F. Proctor, “Are bryophytes shade plants? Photosynthetic light responses and proportions of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total carotenoids,” Annals of Botany, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 593–603, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. P. W. Richards, The Tropical Rain Forest: An Ecological Study, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1952.
  46. R. Lücking and A. Bernecker-Lücking, “Drip-tips do not impair the development of epiphyllous rain-forest lichen communities,” Journal of Tropical Ecology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 171–177, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Toomey, D. Roberts, and B. Nelson, “The influence of epiphylls on remote sensing of humid forests,” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 113, no. 8, pp. 1787–1798, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. P. D. Coley and T. A. Kursar, “Causes and consequences of epiphyll colonization,” in Tropical Forest Plant Ecophysiology, S. S. Mulkey, R. L. Chazdon, and A. P. Smith, Eds., pp. 337–362, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  49. G. Zotz and K. Winter, “Photosynthesis and carbon gain of the lichen, Leptogium azureum, in a lowland tropical forest,” Flora, vol. 189, no. 2, pp. 179–186, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. Bohning and C. A. Burnside, “The effect of light intensity on rate of apparent photosynthesis in leaves of sun and shade plants,” The American Journal of Botany, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 557–561, 1956. View at Google Scholar
  51. K. Kitajima, “Relative importance of photosynthetic traits and allocation patterns as correlates of seedling shade tolerance of 13 tropical trees,” Oecologia, vol. 98, no. 3-4, pp. 419–428, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. M. Craine and P. B. Reich, “Leaf-level light compensation points in shade-tolerant woody seedlings,” New Phytologist, vol. 166, no. 3, pp. 710–713, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Ribas-Carbo, N. L. Taylor, L. Giles et al., “Effects of water stress on respiration in soybean leaves,” Plant Physiology, vol. 139, no. 1, pp. 466–473, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. R. L. Chazdon and R. W. Pearcy, “The importance of sunflecks for forest understory plants,” BioScience, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 760–766, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. S. Olarinmoye, “Ecology of epiphyllous liverworts: growth in three natural habitats in Western Nigeria,” Journal of Bryology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 275–289, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. C. J. Ellis, B. J. Coppins, and T. P. Dawson, “Predicted response of the lichen epiphyte Lecanora populicola to climate change scenarios in a clean-air region of Northern Britain,” Biological Conservation, vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 396–404, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. C. J. Ellis, R. Yahr, and B. J. Coppins, “Local extent of old-growth woodland modifies epiphyte response to climate change,” Journal of Biogeography, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 302–313, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. N. L. Stephenson, “Climatic control of vegetation distribution: the role of the water balance,” The American Naturalist, vol. 135, no. 5, pp. 649–670, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus