Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 690752, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/690752
Research Article

Cholesterol-Lowering Potentials of Lactic Acid Bacteria Based on Bile-Salt Hydrolase Activity and Effect of Potent Strains on Cholesterol Metabolism In Vitro and In Vivo

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Hungkuang University, No. 1018, Section 6, Taiwan Boulevard, Shalu District, Taichung City 43302, Taiwan
2Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung City 40402, Taiwan
3Department of Food and Nutrition, Providence University, Taichung City 43301, Taiwan

Received 17 May 2014; Accepted 19 September 2014; Published 3 November 2014

Academic Editor: Virender Kumar Batish

Copyright © 2014 Cheng-Chih Tsai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. World Health Organization, “Cardiovascular Disease fact sheet No. 317,” 2013, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/en/index.html.
  2. S. Dunn-Emke, G. Weidner, and D. Ornish, “Benefits of a low-fat plant-based diet,” Obesity Research, vol. 9, no. 11, p. 731, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. H. Davidson, M. A. Dillon, B. Gordon et al., “Colesevelam hydrochloride (Cholestagel): a new, potent bile acid sequestrant associated with a low incidence of gastrointestinal side effects,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 159, no. 16, pp. 1893–1900, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. FAO/WHO, “Guidelines for the evaluation of probiotics in food,” Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Working Group on Drafting Guidelines for the Evaluation of Probiotics in Food, 2002, ftp://ftp.fao.org/es/esn/food/wgreport2.pdf. View at Google Scholar
  5. G. V. Mann and A. Spoerry, “Studies of a surfactant and cholesteremia in the Maasai,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 464–469, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. D. Pan, X. Q. Zeng, and Y. T. Yan, “Characterisation of Lactobacillus fermentum SM-7 isolated from koumiss, a potential probiotic bacterium with cholesterol-lowering effects,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 512–518, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Ö. Öner, B. Aslim, and S. B. Aydaş, “Mechanisms of cholesterol-lowering effects of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains as potential probiotics with their bsh gene analysis,” Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 12–18, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Wang, H. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Chen, and Q. Bao, “Selection of potential probiotic lactobacilli for cholesterol-lowering properties and their effect on cholesterol metabolism in rats fed a high-lipid diet,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 1645–1654, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. I. A. Pereira and G. R. Gibson, “Effects of consumption of probiotics and prebiotics on serum lipid levels in humans,” Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 259–281, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Y. T. Ahn, G. B. Kim, K. S. Lim, Y. J. Baek, and H. U. Kim, “Deconjugation of bile salts by Lactobacillus acidophilus isolates,” International Dairy Journal, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 303–311, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. Kimoto, S. Ohmomo, and T. Okamoto, “Cholesterol removal from media by lactococci,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 85, no. 12, pp. 3182–3188, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. A. Trautwein, D. Rieckhoff, and H. F. Erbersdobler, “Dietary inulin lowers plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol and alters biliary bile acid profile in hamsters,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 128, no. 11, pp. 1937–1943, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H.-S. Lye, G. Rusul, and M.-T. Liong, “Removal of cholesterol by lactobacilli via incorporation and conversion to coprostanol,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 1383–1392, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. Tahri, J. P. Grill, and F. Schneider, “Involvement of trihydroxyconjugated bile salts in cholesterol assimilation by bifidobacteria,” Current Microbiology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 79–84, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. A. B. Sanders, “Food production and food safety,” British Medical Journal, vol. 318, no. 7199, pp. 1689–1693, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. I. A. Pereira, A. L. McCartney, and G. R. Gibson, “An in vitro study of the probiotic potential of a bile-salt-hydrolyzing Lactobacillus fermentum strain, and determination of its cholesterol-lowering properties,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 69, no. 8, pp. 4743–4752, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. I. de Smet, L. van Hoorde, N. de Saeyer, M. Vande Woestyne, and W. Verstraete, “In vitro study of bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity of BSH isogenic Lactobacillus plantarum 80 strains and estimation of cholesterol lowering through enhanced BSH activity,” Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 315–329, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. G. Raederstorff, M. F. Schlachter, V. Elste, and P. Weber, “Effect of EGCG on lipid absorption and plasma lipid levels in rats,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 326–332, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. E. Gilliland, C. R. Nelson, and C. Maxwell, “Assimilation of cholesterol by Lactobacillus acidophilus,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 377–381, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. X. Wu, A. Shang, H. Jiang, and H. N. Ginsberg, “Low rates of apoB secretion from HepG2 cells result from reduced delivery of newly synthesized triglyceride to a “secretion-coupled” pool,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 1198–1206, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. W. Boulton, U. K. Walle, and T. Walle, “Fate of the flavonoid quercetin in human cell lines: chemical instability and metabolism,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 353–359, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Casaschi, G. K. Maiyoh, B. K. Rubio, R. W. Li, K. Adeli, and A. G. Theriault, “The chalcone xenthohumol inhibits triglyceride and apolipoprotein B secretion in HepG2 cells,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 134, no. 6, pp. 1340–1346, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Kumar, R. Nagpal, R. Kumar et al., “Cholesterol-lowering probiotics as potential biotherapeutics for metabolic diseases,” Experimental Diabetes Research, vol. 2012, Article ID 902917, 14 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. G. Lundeen and D. C. Savage, “Characterization and purification of bile salt hydrolase from Lactobacillus sp. strain 100-100,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 172, no. 8, pp. 4171–4177, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. D. T. Nguyen, J. H. Kang, and M. S. Lee, “Characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum PH04, a potential probiotic bacterium with cholesterol-lowering effects,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 358–361, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. P. Taranto, M. Medici, G. Perdigon, A. P. Ruiz Holgado, and G. Font de Valdez, “Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on the prevention of hypercholesterolemia in mice,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 401–403, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. Kumar, S. Grover, and V. K. Batish, “Bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) activity screening of Lactobacilli: in vitro selection of indigenous Lactobacillus strains with potential bile salt hydrolysing and cholesterol-lowering ability,” Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 162–172, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. Corzo and S. E. Gilliland, “Measurement of bile salt hydrolase activity from Lactobacillus acidophilus based on disappearance of conjugated bile salts,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 466–471, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. F. A. M. Klaver and R. van der Meer, “The assumed assimilation of cholesterol by lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium bifidum is due to their bile salt-deconjugating activity,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 1120–1124, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. O. Dussurget, D. Cabanes, P. Dehoux et al., “Listeria monocytogenes bile salt hydrolase is a PrfA-regulated virulence factor involved in the intestinal and hepatic phases of listeriosis,” Molecular Microbiology, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1095–1106, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. E. Wells and P. B. Hylemon, “Identification and characterization of a bile acid 7α-dehydroxylation operon in Clostridium sp. strain TO-931, a highly active 7α-dehydroxylating strain isolated from human feces,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 1107–1113, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. P. Kurdi, H. Tanaka, H. W. van Veen, K. Asano, F. Tomita, and A. Yokota, “Cholic acid accumulation and its diminution by short-chain fatty acids in bifidobacteria,” Microbiology, vol. 149, no. 8, pp. 2031–2037, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. Takahashi and M. Morotomi, “Absence of cholic acid 7 alpha-dehydroxylase activity in the strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 77, no. 11, pp. 3275–3286, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. E. Ros, “Intestinal absorption of triglyceride and cholesterol. Dietary and pharmacological inhibition to reduce cardiovascular risk,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 357–379, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. O. Noh, S. H. Kim, and S. E. Gilliland, “Incorporation of cholesterol into the celluar membrane of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 80, no. 12, pp. 3107–3113, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. M. Wong, R. de Souza, C. W. Kendall, A. Emam, and D. J. Jenkins, “Colonic health: fermentation and short chain fatty acids,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 235–243, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. Wickström, L. Chávez de Paz, J. R. Davies, and G. Svensäter, “Surface-associated MUC5B mucins promote protease activity in Lactobacillus fermentum biofilms,” BMC Oral Health, vol. 13, no. 1, article 43, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. D. K. Lee, S. Jang, E. H. Baek et al., “Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content,” Lipids in Health and Disease, vol. 8, article 21, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. C. Manca de Nadra, “Polysaccharide production by pediococcus pentosaceus from wine,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 27, no. 2-3, pp. 101–106, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. Semjonovs and P. Zikmanis, “Evaluation of novel lactose-positive and exopolysaccharide-producing strain of Pediococcus pentosaceus for fermented foods,” European Food Research and Technology, vol. 227, no. 3, pp. 851–856, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. T. Smitinont, C. Tansakul, S. Tanasupawat et al., “Exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria strains from traditional thai fermented foods: isolation, identification and exopolysaccharide characterization,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 51, no. 2-3, pp. 105–111, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. H. Maeda, X. Zhu, K. Omura, S. Suzuki, and S. Kitamura, “Effects of an exopolysaccharide (kefiran) on lipids, blood pressure, blood glucose, and constipation,” BioFactors, vol. 22, no. 1–4, pp. 197–200, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. M. Pigeon, E. P. Cuesta, and S. E. Gilliland, “Binding of free bile acids by cells of yogurt starter culture bacteria,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 85, no. 11, pp. 2705–2710, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. E. Tok and B. Aslim, “Cholesterol removal by some lactic acid bacteria that can be used as probiotic,” Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 257–264, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus