Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 765907, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/765907
Research Article

Soil Characteristic Comparison of Fenced and Grazed Riparian Floodplain Wetlands in the Typical Steppe Region of the Inner Mongolian Plateau, China

1College of Environment and Resources, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021, China
2College of Life Sciences, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021, China
3Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003, China
4BERIS Engineering and Research Corporation, Baotou 014010, China

Received 19 March 2014; Accepted 24 March 2014; Published 19 May 2014

Academic Editor: Xu Gang

Copyright © 2014 Lixin Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. Dugan, Wetlands in Danger, Mitchell Beazley, London, UK, 1992.
  2. K. D. Schuyt, “Economic consequences of wetland degradation for local populations in Africa,” Ecological Economics, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 177–190, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. B. Zedler, “Progress in wetland restoration ecology,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 402–407, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. Bai, B. Cui, H. Cao, A. Li, and B. Zhang, “Wetland degradation and ecological restoration,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2013, Article ID 523632, 2 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. P. Banaszuk and A. Kamocki, “Effects of climatic fluctuations and land-use changes on the hydrology of temperate fluviogenous mire,” Ecological Engineering, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 133–146, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. L. Erwin, “Wetlands and global climate change: the role of wetland restoration in a changing world,” Wetlands Ecology and Management, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 71–84, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. Álvarez-Rogel, F. J. Jiménez-Cárceles, M. J. Roca, and R. Ortiz, “Changes in soils and vegetation in a Mediterranean coastal salt marsh impacted by human activities,” Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, vol. 73, no. 3-4, pp. 510–526, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Z. Luan and D. Zhou, “Impacts of intensified agriculture developments on marsh wetlands,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2013, Article ID 409439, 10 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. W. M. Jones, L. H. Fraser, and P. J. Curtis, “Plant community functional shifts in response to livestock grazing in intermountain depressional wetlands in British Columbia, Canada,” Biological Conservation, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 511–517, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. Laffaille, J.-C. Lefeuvre, and E. Feunteun, “Impact of sheep grazing on juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L., in tidal salt marshes,” Biological Conservation, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 271–277, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Y. S. Olsen, A. Dausse, A. Garbutt, H. Ford, D. N. Thomas, and D. L. Jones, “Cattle grazing drives nitrogen and carbon cycling in a temperate salt marsh,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 531–541, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. A. Reid, R. Ogden, and M. C. Thoms, “The influence of flood frequency, geomorphic setting and grazing on plant communities and plant biomass on a large dryland floodplain,” Journal of Arid Environments, vol. 75, no. 9, pp. 815–826, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. J. Reimold, R. A. Linthurst, and P. L. Wolf, “Effects of grazing on a salt marsh,” Biological Conservation, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 105–125, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. N. Rossignol, A. Bonis, and J.-B. Bouzillé, “Consequence of grazing pattern and vegetation structure on the spatial variations of net N mineralisation in a wet grassland,” Applied Soil Ecology, vol. 31, no. 1-2, pp. 62–72, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Z.-Y. Wang, Y.-Z. Xin, D.-M. Gao, F.-M. Li, J. Morgan, and B.-S. Xing, “Microbial community characteristics in a degraded wetland of the Yellow River Delta,” Pedosphere, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 466–478, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. Moreno-Mateos, M. E. Power, F. A. Comín, and R. Yockteng, “Structural and functional loss in restored wetland ecosystems,” PLoS Biology, vol. 10, no. 1, Article ID e1001247, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. I. Douterelo, R. Goulder, and M. Lillie, “Soil microbial community response to land-management and depth, related to the degradation of organic matter in English wetlands: implications for the in situ preservation of archaeological remains,” Applied Soil Ecology, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 219–227, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. M. Yao, J. Bai, and Z. Zhang, “Variations of soil organic matter and nutrients in degenerated wetland in response to ecological restoration in shuangtaizi erstuary, Northeast China,” Advanced Materials Research, vol. 664, pp. 48–54, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  19. W. J. Li, S. H. Ali, and Q. Zhang, “Property rights and grassland degradation: a study of the Xilingol Pasture, Inner Mongolia, China,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 461–470, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. M. Williams, “Grassland enclosures: catalyst of land degradation in Inner Mongolia,” Human Organization, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 307–313, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  21. Y. Z. Gao, M. Giese, S. Lin, B. Sattelmacher, Y. Zhao, and H. Brueck, “Belowground net primary productivity and biomass allocation of a grassland in Inner Mongolia is affected by grazing intensity,” Plant and Soil, vol. 307, no. 1-2, pp. 41–50, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Y. Bai, L. Li, Q. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Changes in plant species diversity and productivity along gradients of precipitation and elevation in the Xilin River Basin, Inner Mongolia,” Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 667–673, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  23. J. W. Li, L. X. Wang, W. Wang, C. Z. Liang, and H. M. Liu, “Characterization of degradation of wetland plant communities on floodplain in typical steppe region of Inner Mongolia Plateau, China,” Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 10–18, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  24. H. Olff and M. E. Ritchie, “Effects of herbivores on grassland plant diversity,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 261–265, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. Adler, D. Raff, and W. Lauenroth, “The effect of grazing on the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation,” Oecologia, vol. 128, no. 4, pp. 465–479, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. Olff and M. E. Ritchie, “Effects of herbivores on grassland plant diversity,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 261–265, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Altesor, M. Oesterheld, E. Leoni, F. Lezama, and C. Rodríguez, “Effect of grazing on community structure and productivity of a Uruguayan grassland,” Plant Ecology, vol. 179, no. 1, pp. 83–91, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. Peco, I. de Pablos, J. Traba, and C. Levassor, “The effect of grazing abandonment on species composition and functional traits: the case of dehesa grasslands,” Basic and Applied Ecology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 175–183, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. Schönbach, H. Wan, M. Gierus et al., “Grassland responses to grazing: effects of grazing intensity and management system in an Inner Mongolian steppe ecosystem,” Plant and Soil, vol. 340, no. 1, pp. 103–115, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Zemmrich, M. Manthey, S. Zerbe, and D. Oyunchimeg, “Driving environmental factors and the role of grazing in grassland communities: a comparative study along an altitudinal gradient in Western Mongolia,” Journal of Arid Environments, vol. 74, no. 10, pp. 1271–1280, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Z. Luan, Z. Wang, D. Yan, G. Liu, and Y. Xu, “The ecological response of carex lasiocarpa community in the riparian wetlands to the environmental gradient of water depth in sanjiang plain, Northeast China,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2013, Article ID 402067, 7 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. M. A. Tabatabai and W. A. Dick, “Simultaneous determination of nitrate, chloride, sulfate, and phosphate in natural waters by ion chromatography,” Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 209–213, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Braun, M. Wolter, F. Zadrazil, G. Flachowsky, C. Mba, and L. V. Griensven, “Bioconversion of wheat straw by Lentinus tuber-regium and its potential utilization as food, medicine and animal feed,” in Science and Cultivation of Edible Fungi, A. Van Griensven and A. A. Balkema, Eds., pp. 549–558, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  34. E. D. Vance, P. C. Brookes, and D. S. Jenkinson, “An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 703–707, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. Y. Li, T. Wang, J. Li, and Y. Ao, “Effect of phosphorus on celery growth and nutrient uptake under different calcium and magnesium levels in substrate culture,” Horticultural Science, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 99–108, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. K. E. Segarra, Source or Sink? Analysis of Narragansett Bay’s Carbon Cycle, Brown University, 2002.
  37. L. M. Teuber, N. Hoelzel, and L. H. Fraser, “Livestock grazing in intermountain depressional wetlands-effects on plant strategies, soil characteristics and biomass,” Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, vol. 175, pp. 21–28, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  38. A. J. Belsky and D. M. Blumenthal, “Effects of livestock grazing on stand dynamics and soils in upland forests of the Interior West,” Conservation Biology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 315–327, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  39. R. A. Golluscio, A. T. Austin, G. C. García Martínez, M. Gonzalez-Polo, O. E. Sala, and R. B. Jackson, “Sheep grazing decreases organic carbon and nitrogen pools in the patagonian steppe: combination of direct and indirect effects,” Ecosystems, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 686–697, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. E. S. Bakker, H. Olff, M. Boekhoff, J. M. Gleichman, and F. Berendse, “Impact of herbivores on nitrogen cycling: contrasting effects of small and large species,” Oecologia, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 91–101, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. D. Reeder and G. E. Schuman, “Influence of livestock grazing on C sequestration in semi-arid mixed-grass and short-grass rangelands,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 457–463, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. Zimmermann, S. I. Higgins, V. Grimm, J. Hoffmann, and A. Linstädter, “Grass mortality in semi-arid savanna: the role of fire, competition and self-shading,” Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G.-L. Wu, G.-Z. Du, Z.-H. Liu, and S. Thirgood, “Effect of fencing and grazing on a Kobresia-dominated meadow in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau,” Plant and Soil, vol. 319, no. 1-2, pp. 115–126, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. W. Wang, C. Z. Liang, Z. L. Liu, and D. Y. Hao, “Mechanism of degradation succession in Leymus chinensis + Stipa grandis steppe community,” Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 468–472, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  45. J. J. Drewry, J. A. H. Lowe, and R. J. Paton, “Effect of sheep stocking intensity on soil physical properties and dry matter production on a Pallic Soil in Southland,” New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 493–499, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. M. Warren, J. R. Brooks, M. I. Dragila, and F. C. Meinzer, “In situ separation of root hydraulic redistribution of soil water from liquid and vapor transport,” Oecologia, vol. 166, no. 4, pp. 899–911, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. H. McNabb, A. D. Startsev, and H. Nguyen, “Soil wetness and traffic level effects on bulk density and air-filled porosity of compacted boreal forest soils,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 1238–1247, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. A. Wheeler, M. J. Trlica, G. W. Frasier, and J. D. Reeder, “Seasonal grazing affects soil physical properties of a montane riparian community,” Journal of Range Management, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 49–56, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. E. Austin, J. R. Keough, and W. H. Pyle, “Effects of habitat management treatments on plant community composition and biomass in a Montane wetland,” Wetlands Ecology and Management, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 570–587, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. W. Lucas, T. T. Baker, M. K. Wood, C. D. Allison, and D. M. Vanleeuwen, “Riparian vegetation response to different intensities and seasons of grazing,” Journal of Range Management, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 466–474, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. T. T. Schulz and W. C. Leininger, “Differences in riparian vegetation structure between grazed areas and exclosures,” Journal of Range Management, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 295–299, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. W. Webb, S. Szarek, W. Lauenroth, R. Kinerson, and M. Smith, “Primary productivity and water use in native forest, grassland, and desert ecosystems,” Ecology, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 1239–1247, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  53. L. Pietola, R. Horn, and M. Yli-Halla, “Effects of trampling by cattle on the hydraulic and mechanical properties of soil,” Soil and Tillage Research, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 99–108, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. K.-H. Wang, R. McSorley, P. Bohlen, and S. M. Gathumbi, “Cattle grazing increases microbial biomass and alters soil nematode communities in subtropical pastures,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 1956–1965, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. R. D. Bardgett, D. K. Leemans, R. Cook, and P. J. Hobbs, “Seasonality in the soil biota of grazed and ungrazed hill grasslands,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1285–1294, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  56. I. M. Unger, A. C. Kennedy, and R.-M. Muzika, “Flooding effects on soil microbial communities,” Applied Soil Ecology, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. P. Jouquet, G. Huchet, N. Bottinelli, T. D. Thu, and T. T. Duc, “Does the influence of earthworms on water infiltration, nitrogen leaching and soil respiration depend on the initial soil bulk density? A mesocosm experiment with the endogeic species Metaphire posthuma,” Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 561–567, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  58. M. Luke McCormack and C. W. Fernandez, “Measuring and modeling roots, the rhizosphere, and microbial processes belowground,” The New phytologist, vol. 192, no. 3, pp. 573–575, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. P. M. Haygarth, R. D. Bardgett, and L. M. Condron, “Nitrogen and phosphorus cycles and their management,” in Gregory Soil Conditions and Plant Growth, P. H. Gregory and S. Nortcliff, Eds., pp. 132–159, John Wiley & Sons, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  60. C. Huang, J. Bai, H. Shao et al., “Changes in soil properties before and after wetland degradation in the Yellow River Delta, China,” CLEAN-Soil, Air, Water, vol. 40, no. 10, pp. 1125–1130, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  61. K. Ballantine, R. Schneider, P. Groffman, and J. Lehmann, “Soil properties and vegetative development in four restored freshwater depressional wetlands,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 1482–1495, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  62. L. Huo, Z. Chen, Y. Zou, X. Lu, J. Guo, and X. Tang, “Effect of Zoige alpine wetland degradation on the density and fractions of soil organic carbon,” Ecological Engineering, vol. 51, pp. 287–295, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  63. J. Bai, H. Ouyang, R. Xiao et al., “Spatial variability of soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus content and storage in an alpine wetland in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China,” Australian Journal of Soil Research, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 730–736, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. Reader and C. Craft, “Comparison of wetland structure and function on grazed and ungrazed salt marshes,” Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, vol. 115, no. 4, pp. 236–249, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  65. R. S. Lavado, J. O. Sierra, and P. N. Hashimoto, “Impact of grazing on soil nutrients in a Pampean grassland,” Journal of Range Management, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 452–457, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  66. S. Yong-Zhong, L. Yu-Lin, C. Jian-Yuan, and Z. Wen-Zhi, “Influences of continuous grazing and livestock exclusion on soil properties in a degraded sandy grassland, Inner Mongolia, northern China,” Catena, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 267–278, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. A. B. Frank, D. L. Tanaka, L. Hofmann, and R. F. Follett, “Soil carbon and nitrogen of Northern Great Plains grasslands as influenced by long-term grazing,” Journal of Range Management, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 470–474, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. G. Pineiro, J. M. Paruelo, M. Oesterheld, and E. G. Jobbágy, “Pathways of grazing effects on soil organic carbon and nitrogen,” Rangeland Ecology and Management, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 109–119, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. X. M. Shi, X. G. Li, C. T. Li, Y. Zhao, Z. H. Shang, and Q. Ma, “Grazing exclusion decreases soil organic C storage at an alpine grassland of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau,” Ecological Engineering, vol. 57, pp. 183–187, 2013. View at Google Scholar