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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 768237, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/768237
Review Article

Association between Hypertension and Periodontitis: Possible Mechanisms

1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Department of Clinical Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
4Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 9 September 2013; Accepted 15 December 2013; Published 8 January 2014

Academic Editors: K. Nagano and I. Tomas

Copyright © 2014 Xin-Fang Leong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This review is to examine the current literatures on the relationship between periodontitis and hypertension as well as to explore the possible biological pathways underlying the linkage between these health conditions. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are among the critical components in the development of hypertension. Inflammation has received much attention recently and may contribute to a pivotal role in hypertension. Periodontitis, a chronic low-grade inflammation of gingival tissue, has been linked to endothelial dysfunction, with blood pressure elevation and increased mortality risk in hypertensive patients. Inflammatory biomarkers are increased in hypertensive patients with periodontitis. Over the years, various researches have been performed to evaluate the involvement of periodontitis in the initiation and progression of hypertension. Many cross-sectional studies documented an association between hypertension and periodontitis. However, more well-designed prospective population trials need to be carried out to ascertain the role of periodontitis in hypertension.