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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 780616, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/780616
Review Article

A Possible Change Process of Inflammatory Cytokines in the Prolonged Chronic Stress and Its Ultimate Implications for Health

1Department of Psychology, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, 579 Mailbox, Hangzhou 310018, China
2Department of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097, China

Received 17 January 2014; Revised 19 April 2014; Accepted 22 April 2014; Published 3 June 2014

Academic Editor: Rongqian Wu

Copyright © 2014 Rui Tian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Sustained stress triggers series of changes in the brain and the body. At the early stage of stress, the activated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) axis can upregulate the levels of glucocorticoid (GCs) and catecholamines (CAs), respectively, and then they in turn inhibit the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines directly or indirectly while promoting the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines. At the prolonged stage, the sustained activated HPA demonstrates cortisol-resistance. At the same time, the inflammation related transcription pathway, such as nuclear-factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling, may be inhibited. Additionally, the inflammatory cytokines mediate a negative feedback regulation on themselves. Collectively, these regulations may increase the proinflammatory cytokines while decreasing the anti-inflammatory cytokines. This may further activate NF-κB and increase the proinflammation cytokines, which in turn reduce the inflammatory responses, contributing to various diseases.