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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 802347, 13 pages
Research Article

A Robust H.264/AVC Video Watermarking Scheme with Drift Compensation

1School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102, USA

Received 29 August 2013; Accepted 17 November 2013; Published 4 February 2014

Academic Editors: Y. Lu and F. Yu

Copyright © 2014 Xinghao Jiang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A robust H.264/AVC video watermarking scheme for copyright protection with self-adaptive drift compensation is proposed. In our scheme, motion vector residuals of macroblocks with the smallest partition size are selected to hide copyright information in order to hold visual impact and distortion drift to a minimum. Drift compensation is also implemented to reduce the influence of watermark to the most extent. Besides, discrete cosine transform (DCT) with energy compact property is applied to the motion vector residual group, which can ensure robustness against intentional attacks. According to the experimental results, this scheme gains excellent imperceptibility and low bit-rate increase. Malicious attacks with different quantization parameters (QPs) or motion estimation algorithms can be resisted efficiently, with 80% accuracy on average after lossy compression.