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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 803276, 13 pages
Research Article

Simulation of Contrast Agent Transport in Arteries with Multilayer Arterial Wall: Impact of Arterial Transmural Transport on the Bolus Delay and Dispersion

Key Laboratory for Biomechanics and Mechanobiology of the Ministry of Education, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China

Received 10 June 2014; Accepted 15 September 2014; Published 17 November 2014

Academic Editor: Lutz Lüdemann

Copyright © 2014 Min Xu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


One assumption of DSC-MRI is that the injected contrast agent is kept totally intravascular and the arterial wall is impermeable to contrast agent. The assumption is unreal for such small contrast agent as Gd-DTPA can leak into the arterial wall. To investigate whether the unreal assumption is valid for the estimation of the delay and dispersion of the contrast agent bolus, we simulated flow and Gd-DTPA transport in a model with multilayer arterial wall and analyzed the bolus delay and dispersion qualified by mean vascular transit time (MVTT) and the variance of the vascular transport function. Factors that may affect Gd-DTPA transport hence the delay and dispersion were further investigated, such as integrity of endothelium and disturbed flow. The results revealed that arterial transmural transport would slightly affect MVTT and moderately increase the variance. In addition, although the integrity of endothelium can significantly affect the accumulation of contrast agent in the arterial wall, it had small effects on the bolus delay and dispersion. However, the disturbed flow would significantly increase both MVTT and the variance. In conclusion, arterial transmural transport may have a small effect on the bolus delay and dispersion when compared to the flow pattern in the artery.