Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 839172, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/839172
Review Article

An Overview of Important Ethnomedicinal Herbs of Phyllanthus Species: Present Status and Future Prospects

1Department of Botany, Gargi College, University of Delhi, Siri Fort Road, New Delhi 110049, India
2National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, IARI Campus, New Delhi 110012, India
3Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain

Received 29 August 2013; Accepted 30 October 2013; Published 3 February 2014

Academic Editors: R. Aroca, W. L. Morris, and S. Sakr

Copyright © 2014 Bharti Sarin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. W. Unander, G. L. Webster, and B. S. Blumberg, “Usage and bioassays in Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae)—IV: clustering of antiviral uses and other effects,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 1–18, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. L. Webster, “Synopsis of the genus and suprageneric taxa of Euphorbiaceae,” Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, vol. 81, pp. 33–144, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  3. J. B. Calixto, A. R. S. Santos, V. C. Filho et al., “A review of the plants of the Genus Phyllanthus: their chemistry, pharmacology and therapeutic potential,” Medicinal Research Reviews, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 225–258, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  4. L. Nahar, S. D. Sarker, and A. Delazar, “Phytochemistry of the genus Phyllanthus,” in Phyllanthus Species: Scientific Evaluation and Medicinal Applications, R. Kuttan and K. B. Harikumar, Eds., pp. 119–138, Taylor and Francis Group, CRC Press, London, UK, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  5. V. Vishwanatha, T. N. Parameswaran, R. R. Rao et al., “Reconfirmation of the identity and occurrence of Phyllanthus ajmerianus Chaudhary & Rao in Ajmer, Rajasthan, India,” Current Science, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 24–26, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. Krithika, R. Mohankumar, R. J. Verma et al., “Isolation, characterization and antioxidative effect of phyllanthin against CCl4-induced toxicity in HepG2 cell line,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 181, no. 3, pp. 351–358, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. A. M. Maciel, A. F. Cunha, N. T. C. Dantas et al., “NMR characterization of bioactive lignans from Phyllanthus amarus Schum and Thonn,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 76–82, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  8. K. Shanker, M. Singh, V. Srivastava, R. Verma, A. Gupta, and M. Gupta, “Simultaneous analysis of six bioactive lignans in Phyllanthus species by reversed phase hyphenated high performance liquid chromatographic technique,” Acta Chromatographica, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 321–337, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. A. L. Kassuya, D. F. P. Leite, L. V. De Melo, V. L. C. Rehder, and J. B. Calixto, “Anti-inflammatory properties of extracts, fractions and lignans isolated from Phyllanthus amarus,” Planta Medica, vol. 71, no. 8, pp. 721–726, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R.-L. Huang, Y.-L. Huang, J.-C. Ou, C.-C. Chen, F.-L. Hsu, and C. Chang, “Screening of 25 compounds isolated from Phyllanthus species for anti-human hepatitis B virus in vitro,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 449–453, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Singh, N. Tiwari, K. Shanker, R. K. Verma, A. K. Gupta, and M. M. Gupta, “Two new lignans from Phyllanthus amarus,” Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 562–568, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. S. Londhe, T. P. A. Devasagayam, L. Y. Foo, and S. S. Ghaskadbi, “Radioprotective properties of polyphenols from Phyllanthus amarus Linn,” Journal of Radiation Research, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 303–309, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. P. Thyagarajan and S. Jayaram, “Natural History of Phyllanthus amarus in treatment of hepatitis B,” Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 64–80, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  14. L. Yeap Foo and H. Wong, “Phyllanthusiin D, an unusual hydrolysable tannin from Phyllanthus amarus,” Phytochemistry, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 711–713, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. Y. Foo, “Amarulone, a novel cyclic hydrolysable tannin from Phyllanthus amarus,” Natural Product Letters, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 45–52, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. Y. Foo, “Amariinic acid and related ellagitannins from Phyllanthus amarus,” Phytochemistry, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 217–224, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Dhalwal, Y. S. Biradar, and M. Rajani, “High-performance thin-layer chromatography densitometric method for simultaneous quantitation of phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, gallic acid, and ellagic acid in Phyllanthus amarus,” Journal of AOAC International, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 619–623, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. S. Londhe, T. P. A. Devasagayam, L. Y. Foo, and S. S. Ghaskadbi, “Antioxidant activity of some polyphenol constituents of the medicinal plant Phyllanthus amarus Linn,” Redox Report, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 199–207, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. K. Singh, M. B. Pandey, S. Singh et al., “Antifungal activity of securinine against some plant pathogenic fungi,” Mycobiology, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 99–101, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  20. C. A. L. Kassuya, A. Silvestre, O. Menezes-de-Lima Jr., D. M. Marotta, V. L. G. Rehder, and J. B. Calixto, “Antiinflammatory and antiallodynic actions of the lignan niranthin isolated from Phyllanthus amarus. Evidence for interaction with platelet activating factor receptor,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 546, no. 1–3, pp. 182–188, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. Sahni, S. Maurya, and U. P. Singh, “Antifungal activity of nor-securinine against some phytopathogenic fungi,” Mycobiology, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 97–103, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  22. P. J. Houghton, T. Z. Woldemariam, S. O'Shea, and S. P. Thyagarajan, “Two securinega-type alkaloids from Phyllanthus amarus,” Phytochemistry, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 715–717, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Ali, P. J. Houghton, and A. Soumyanath, “α-Amylase inhibitory activity of some Malaysian plants used to treat diabetes; with particular reference to Phyllanthus amarus,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 449–455, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. O. Moronkola, I. A. Ogunwande, I. O. Oyewole, K. Husnu Can Başer, T. Ozek, and G. Ozek, “Studies on the volatile oils of momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) and Phyllanthus amarus Seh. et Thonn (Euphorbiaceae),” Journal of Essential Oil Research, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 393–399, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. Ahmed, S. Khan, and A. Verma, “Antihepatotoxic activity of debelalactone, a new oxirano-furanocoumarin from Phyllanthus debilis,” Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 687–692, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. K. Tripathi, R. K. Verma, A. K. Gupta, M. M. Gupta, and S. P. S. Khanuja, “Quantitative determination of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin in Phyllanthus species by high-performance thin layer chromatography,” Phytochemical Analysis, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 394–397, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. Sebastian and O. H. Setty, “Protective effect of P. fraternus Against ethanol-induced mitochondrial dysfunction,” Alcohol, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 29–34, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. A. Sittie, E. Lemmich, and C. E. Olsen, “Alkamides from Phyllanthus fraternus,” Planta Medica, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 192–193, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. S. Bhakuni, “Chemical examination of the seed of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn,” Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research B, vol. 18, pp. 446–447, 1959. View at Google Scholar
  30. Y.-L. Huang, C.-C. Chen, F.-L. Hsu, and C.-F. Chen, “Two tannins from Phyllanthus tenellus,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 523–524, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S.-H. Fang, Y. K. Rao, and Y.-M. Tzeng, “Anti-oxidant and inflammatory mediator's growth inhibitory effects of compounds isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. 333–340, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C.-C. Chang, Y.-C. Lien, K. C. S. C. Liu, and S.-S. Lee, “Lignans from Phyllanthus urinaria,” Phytochemistry, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 825–833, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C.-Y. Wang and S.-S. Lee, “Analysis and identification of lignans in Phyllanthus urinaria by HPLC-SPE-NMR,” Phytochemical Analysis, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 120–126, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. Okuda, K. Mori, and T. Hatano, “The distribution of geraniin and mallotusinic acid in the order geraniales,” Phytochemistry, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 547–551, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. Q. Q. Yao and C. X. Zuo, “Chemical studies on the constituents of Phyllanthus urinaria L,” Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 829–835, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. H. Luo, L. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Ding, and X. Xu, “Frontal immunoaffinity chromatography with mass spectrometric detection: a method for finding active compounds from traditional Chinese herbs,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 75, no. 16, pp. 3994–3998, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. S. Shin, E. H. Kang, and Y. I. Lee, “A flavonoid from medicinal plants blocks hepatitis B virus-e antigen secretion in HBV-infected hepatocytes,” Antiviral Research, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 163–168, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. L. Jikai, H. Yue, T. Henkel, and K. Weber, “One step purification of corilagin and ellagic acid from Phyllanthus urinaria using high-speed countercurrent chromatography,” Phytochemical Analysis, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1–3, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. T. K. Nara, J. Glyeye, E. L. Cerval et al., “Flavonoids of Phyllanthus niruri, Phyllanthus urinaria, Phyllanthus orbiculatus,” Plantes Médicinales et Phytothérapie, vol. 11, pp. 82–86, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  40. K. S. Satyan, A. Prakash, R. P. Singh, and R. S. Srivastava, “Phthalic acid bis-ester and other phytoconstituents of Phyllanthus urinaria,” Planta Medica, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 293–294, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. Y.-L. Huang, C.-C. Chen, F.-L. Hsu, and C.-F. Chen, “A new lignan from Phyllanthus virgatus,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 520–521, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Y.-L. Huang, C.-C. Chen, F.-L. Hsu, and C.-F. Chen, “Tannins, flavonol sulfonates, and a norlignan from Phyllanthus virgatus,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 1194–1197, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. H. Chirdchupunseree and P. Pramyothin, “Protective activity of phyllanthin in ethanol-treated primary culture of rat hepatocytes,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 172–176, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. A. Islam, T. Selvan, U. K. Mazumder, M. Gupta, and S. Ghosal, “Antitumour effect of Phyllanthin and Hypophyllanthin from Phyllanthus amarus against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in mice,” Pharmacologyonline, vol. 2, pp. 796–807, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. K. B. Harikumar, G. Kuttan, and R. Kuttan, “Inhibition of viral carcinogenesis by Phyllanthus amarus,” Integrative Cancer Therapies, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 254–260, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. Mazumder, A. Mahato, and R. Mazumder, “Antimicrobial potentiality of Phyllanthus amarus against drug resistant pathogens,” Natural Product Research, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 323–326, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. H. Joshi and M. Parle, “Evaluation of antiamnestic potentials of [6]-gingerol and phyllanthin in mice,” Natural Products, vol. 2, pp. 109–117, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  48. A. D. Kandhare, P. Ghosh, A. E. Ghule et al., “Protective effect of Phyllanthus amarus by modulation of endogenous biomarkers and DNA damage in acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis: role of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin,” Apollo Medicine, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 87–97, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  49. D. F. P. Leite, C. A. L. Kassuya, T. L. Mazzuco et al., “The cytotoxic effect and the multidrug resistance reversing action of lignans from Phyllanthus amarus,” Planta Medica, vol. 72, no. 15, pp. 1353–1358, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. H. Dhir, A. Kumar Roy, A. Sharma, and G. Talukder, “Protection afforded by aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus species against cytotoxicity induced by lead and aluminium salts,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 172–176, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. F. Notka, G. Meier, and R. Wagner, “Concerted inhibitory activities of Phyllanthus amarus on HIV replication in vitro and ex vivo,” Antiviral Research, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 93–102, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. S. Londhe, T. P. A. Devasagayam, L. Y. Foo et al., “Geraniin and amariin, ellagitannins from Phyllanthus amarus, protect liver cells against ethanol induced cytotoxicity,” Fitoterapia, vol. 83, no. 8, pp. 1562–1568, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  53. M. Ogunlesi, W. Okiei, E. A. S. Osibote, and C. Muotoh, “Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and the fractional samples obtained from the leaves and seeds of Phyllanthus atnarus (Euphorbiaceae),” Research Journal of Phytochemistry, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 77–84, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. H. Lee, I. B. Jaganath, S. M. Wang, and S. D. Sekaran, “Antimetastatic effects of Phyllanthus on human lung (A549) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 6, article e20994, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. C.-M. Yang, H.-Y. Cheng, T.-C. Lin, L.-C. Chiang, and C.-C. Lin, “The in vitro activity of geraniin and 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria against herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 infection,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 555–558, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S.-Y. Lin, C.-C. Wang, Y.-L. Lu, W.-C. Wu, and W.-C. Hou, “Antioxidant, anti-semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase, and anti-hypertensive activities of geraniin isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 2485–2492, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S.-T. Huang, C.-Y. Wang, R.-C. Yang et al., “Ellagic acid, the active compound of Phyllanthus urinaria, exerts in vivo anti-angiogenic effect and inhibits MMP-2 activity,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 215035, 10 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. S. S. Handa, A. S. Chawla, and A. K. Sharma, “Plants with antiinflammatory activity,” Fitoterapia, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 3–31, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. A. R. S. Santos, V. C. Filho, R. A. Yunes, and J. B. Calixto, “Analysis of the mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive effect of the extracts of plants from the genus Phyllanthus,” General Pharmacology, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1499–1506, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. C. Recio, R. M. Giner, S. Manez, and J. L. Rios, “Structural requirements for the anti-inflammatory activity of natural triterpenoids,” Planta Medica, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 182–185, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. Maruyama, S. Yamauchi, K. Akiyama, T. Sugahara, T. Kishida, and Y. Koba, “Antibacterial activity of a virgatusin-related compound,” Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 677–680, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. J. R. Patel, P. Tripathi, V. Sharma, N. S. Chauhan, and V. K. Dixit, “Phyllanthus amarus: ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology: a review,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 138, no. 2, pp. 286–313, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. C. P. Kala, P. P. Dhyani, and B. S. Sajwan, “Developing the medicinal plants sector in northern India: challenges and opportunities,” Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 2, article 32, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. P. S. Udayan, K. V. Tushar, S. George et al., “Ethnomedicinal information fron Kattunayakas tribes of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary. Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu,” Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, vol. 6, pp. 574–578, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  65. R. P. Samy, P. N. Pushparaj, and P. A. Gopikrishnakone, “Compilation of bioactive compounds from Ayurveda,” Bioinformation, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 100–110, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  66. K. Chenniappan and M. Kadarkarai, “In vitro antimalarial activity of traditionally used Western Ghats plants from India and their interactions with chloroquine against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum,” Parasitology Research, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 1351–1364, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. B. Upadhyay, P. Parveen, A. K. Dhaker, and A. Kumar, “Ethnomedicinal and ethnopharmaco-statistical studies of Eastern Rajasthan, India,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 64–86, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. Jain, S. S. Katewa, P. K. Galav, and P. Sharma, “Medicinal plant diversity of Sitamata wildlife sanctuary, Rajasthan, India,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 143–157, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. P. Mahishi, B. H. Srinivasa, and M. B. Shivanna, “Medicinal plant wealth of local communities in some villages in Shimoga District of Karnataka, India,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 307–312, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. C. Muthu, M. Ayyanar, N. Raja, and S. Ignacimuthu, “Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India,” Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 2, article 43, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. S. Ignacimuthu, M. Ayyanar, and K. Sankarasivaraman, “Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Paliyar tribals in Theni district of Tamil Nadu, India,” Fitoterapia, vol. 79, no. 7-8, pp. 562–568, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. S. Shanmugam, K. Maniknandan, and K. Rajendran, “Ethnomedicinal survey of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes and jaundice among the villagers of Sivagangai District, Tamil Nadu,” Ethnobotanical Leaflets, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 189–194, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  73. N. Rajakumar and M. B. Shivanna, “Ethno-medicinal application of plants in the eastern region of Shimoga district, Karnataka, India,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 126, no. 1, pp. 64–73, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. J. K. Samuel and B. Andrews, “Traditional medicinal plant wealth of Pachalur and Periyur hamlets Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu,” Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 264–270, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. K. B. Hari Kumar and R. Kuttan, “Inhibition of drug metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450) in vitro as well as in vivo by Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1310–1313, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. K. S. Chandrashekar, A. B. Joshi, D. Satyanarayana, and P. Pai, “Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Phyllanthus debilis whole plant,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 586–588, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. V. Acharya, V. Sharma, P. K. Patra et al., “Plants used by Kamar, Gond and Halba tribe of Dhamtari district of Chhattisgarh for relief of sickle cell disease,” Recent Research in Science and Technology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1–3, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  78. K. K. Wanniarachchi, L. D. C. Peiris, and W. D. Ratnasooriya, “Antihyperglycemic and hypoglycemic activities of Phyllanthus debilis aqueous plant extract in mice,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 260–265, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. A. Kumaran and R. Joel Karunakaran, “In vitro antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of five Phyllanthus species from India,” LWT—Food Science and Technology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 344–352, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. J. L. Nishiura, A. H. Campos, M. A. Boim, I. P. Heilberg, and N. Schor, “Phyllanthus niruri normalizes elevated urinary calcium levels in calcium stone forming (CSF) patients,” Urological Research, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 362–366, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. S. Chanda, M. Kaneria, and Y. K. Vaghasiya, “Evaluation of antimicrobial potential of some Indian medicinal plants against some pathogenic microbes,” Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 225–228, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. R. Sailaja and O. H. Setty, “Protective effect of Phyllanthus fraternus against allyl alcohol-induced oxidative stress in liver mitochondria,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 105, no. 1-2, pp. 201–209, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. S. Gopi and O. H. Setty, “Protective effect of Phyllanthus fraternus against bromobenzene induced mitochondrial dysfunction in rat liver mitochondria,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48, no. 8-9, pp. 2170–2175, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. K. K. Kumari and O. H. Setty, “Protective effect of Phyllanthus fraternus against mitochondrial dysfunction induced by co-administration of cisplatin and cyclophosphamide,” Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 179–188, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. G. A. Koffuor and P. Amoateng, “Antioxidant and anticoagulant properties of Phyllanthus fraternus GL Webster (Family: Euphorbiaceae),” Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 624–636, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. V. I. Hukeri, G. A. Kalyani, and H. K. Kakrani, “Hypoglycemic activity of flavonoids of Phyllanthus fraternus in rats,” Fitoterapia, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 68–70, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. S. P. Thyagarajan, S. Jayaram, V. Gopalakrishnan, R. Hari, P. Jeyakumar, and M. S. Sripathi, “Herbal medicines for liver diseases in India,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. S370–S376, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. V. V. Asha and P. Pushpangadan, “Preliminary evaluation of the antihepatotoxic activity of Phyllanthus kozhikodianus, P. maderaspatensis and Solanum indicum,” Fitoterapia, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 255–259, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. M. J. N. Chandrasekar, P. Bommu, M. J. Nanjan, and B. Suresh, “Chemoprotective effect of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis in modulating cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and genotoxicity,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 100–106, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. P. Bommu, C. M. J. Nanjan, N. M. Joghee, S. M. Nataraj, and S. Bhojraj, “Phyllanthus maderaspatensis, a dietary supplement for the amelioration of adriamycin-induced toxicity and oxidative stress in mice,” Journal of Natural Medicines, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 149–154, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. V. V. Asha, S. Akhila, P. J. Wills, and A. Subramoniam, “Further studies on the antihepatotoxic activity of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 67–70, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. V. Sivajothi, A. Dey, B. Jayakar, and B. Rajkapoor, “Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effect of Phyllanthus rheedii on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats,” Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 53–59, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. V. Suresh and V. V. Asha, “Preventive effect of ethanol extract of Phyllanthus rheedii Wight. on d-galactosamine induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 447–453, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. S. R. N. Ignácio, J. L. P. Ferreira, M. B. Almeida, and C. F. Kubelka, “Nitric oxide production by murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo treated with Phyllanthus tenellus extracts,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 181–187, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. D. F. Oliveira, A. C. Pereira, H. C. P. Figueiredo et al., “Antibacterial activity of plant extracts from Brazilian southeast region,” Fitoterapia, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 142–145, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. A. R. S. Santos, V. C. Filho, R. Niero et al., “Analgesic effects of callus culture extracts from selected species of Phyllanthus in mice,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 755–759, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. T. C. D. L. Silva, F. J. Veras, I. A. Souza et al., “Acute toxicity study of stone-breaker (Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb.),” Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 205–210, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  98. S.-T. Huang, R.-C. Yang, and J.-H. S. Pang, “Aqueous extract of Phyllanthus urinaria induces apoptosis in human cancer cells,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 175–183, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. S.-T. Huang, J.-H. S. Pang, and R.-C. Yang, “Anti-cancer effects of Phyllanthus urinaria and relevant mechanisms,” Chang Gung Medical Journal, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 477–487, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. Y.-Q. Tang, I. B. Jaganath, and S. D. Sekaran, “Phyllanthus spp. induces selective growth inhibition of PC-3 and MeWo human cancer cells through modulation of cell cycle and induction of apoptosis,” PloS ONE, vol. 5, no. 9, article e12644, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. M. Zhong, Y. Xiang, X. Qiu et al., “Natural products as a source of anti-herpes simplex virus agents,” RSC Advances, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 313–328, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  102. C. A. Lans, “Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus,” Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 2, article 45, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. C.-H. Lai, S.-H. Fang, Y. K. Rao et al., “Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation in human gastric epithelial AGS cells by Phyllanthus urinaria extracts,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 522–526, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. V. J. Tiwari and M. D. Padhye, “Ethnobotanical study of Gond tribe of Chandrapur and Gadchiroli districts of Maharashtra State, India,” Fitoterapia, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 58–61, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. K. Poompachee and N. Chudapongse, “Comparison of the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Phyllanthus virgatus and Phyllanthus amarus extracts,” Medical Principles and Practice, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 24–29, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. S. K. Sharma, S. M. Arogya, D. H. Bhaskarmurthy, A. Agarwal, and C. C. Velusami, “Hepatoprotective activity of the Phyllanthus species on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BH)-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells,” Pharmacognosy Magazine, vol. 7, no. 27, pp. 229–233, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. R. Murugan, R. R. Rao, and V. Vishwanatha, “Occurrence of Phyllanthus scabrifolius Hook. f. in Amingad, Bagalkot district, Karnataka—a new distributional record,” Current Science, vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 870–871, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. S. Khatoon, V. Rai, A. K. S. Rawat, and S. Mehrotra, “Comparative pharmacognostic studies of three Phyllanthus species,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 104, no. 1-2, pp. 79–86, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. R. Srirama, H. B. Deepak, U. Senthilkumar et al., “Hepatoprotective activity of Indian Phyllanthus,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 948–953, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  110. M. Palaniappan and M. Marappa, “RAPD and ISSR analyses reveal low levels of genetic diversity in Phyllanthus amarus,” in Proceedings of the 27th International Horticultural Congress-IHC, International Symposium on Plants as Food and Medicine: The Utilization and Development of Horticultural Plants for Human Health, ISHS Acta Horticulture 765, 2006.
  111. N. Jain, A. K. Shasany, V. Sundaresan et al., “Molecular diversity in Phyllanthus amarus assessed through RAPD analysis,” Current Science, vol. 85, no. 10, pp. 1454–1458, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. R. L. Mitra and S. K. Jain, “Concept of Phyllanthus niruri (Euphorbiaceae) in Indian floras,” Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India, vol. 27, no. 1–4, pp. 161–176, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  113. B. S. Geetha, K. K. Sabu, and S. Seeni, “Genetic variation in South India populations of Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn. (Euphorbiaceae) assessed using isozymes,” in Proceedings of the 15th Kerala Science Congress, pp. 196–201, 2003.
  114. G. Ravikant, R. Srirama, U. Senthilkumar et al., “Genetic resources of Phyllanthus in Southern India: identification of geographic and genetic hot spots and its implication for conservation,” in Phyllanthus Species: Scientific Evaluation and Medicinal Applications, R. Kuttan and K. B. Harikumar, Eds., pp. 97–118, Taylor and Francis Group, CRC Press, London, UK, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  115. D. Kandavel, S. K. Rani, M. G. Vinithra et al., “Systematic studies in herbaceous Phyllanthus spp. (region: Tiruchirappalli district in India) and a simple key to authenticate ‘Bhumyamalaki’complex members,” Journal of Phytology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 37–48, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  116. G. L. Webster, “A monographic study of the West Indian species of Phyllanthus,” Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, vol. 38, pp. 295–373, 1957. View at Google Scholar
  117. N. Jain, A. K. Shasany, S. Singh, S. P. S. Khanuja, and S. Kumar, “SCAR markers for correct identification of Phyllanthus amarus, P. fraternus, P. debilis and P. urinaria used in scientific investigations and dry leaf bulk herb trade,” Planta Medica, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 296–301, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. P. Theerakulpisut, N. Kanawapee, D. Maensiri, S. Bunnag, and P. Chantaranothai, “Development of species-specific SCAR markers for identification of three medicinal species of Phyllanthus,” Journal of Systematics and Evolution, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 614–621, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. S. Bandyopadhyay and S. S. Raychaudhuri, “Development and comparison of RAPD, SCAR and AFLP markers for distinguishing some medicinally important species of the genus Phyllanthus,” Plant Biosystems, vol. 147, no. 1, pp. 12–20, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  120. S. K. Senapati, S. Aparajita, and G. R. Rout, “Identification of species-diagnostic inter simple sequence repeat markers for ten Phyllanthus species,” Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung C, vol. 66, no. 3-4, pp. 167–172, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. R. Srirama, U. Senthilkumar, N. Sreejayan et al., “Assessing species admixtures in raw drug trade of Phyllanthus, a hepato-protective plant using molecular tools,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 208–215, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. J. Manissorn, S. Sukrong, N. Ruangrungsi, and H. Mizukami, “Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Phyllanthus species in Thailand and the application of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism for Phyllanthus amarus identification,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 1723–1727, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. S. Bandyopadhyay and S. S. Raychaudhuri, “Development of ITS based SCAR markers for some medicinally important species of Phyllanthus,” Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 264–270, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. G. R. Rout, S. K. Senapati, and S. Aparajita, “Study of relationships among twelve Phyllanthus species with the use of molecular markers,” Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 135–141, 2010. View at Google Scholar