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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 850782, 9 pages
Research Article

Consequences of Physical Disturbance by Tadpoles and Snails on Chironomid Larvae

1Entomology Research Unit, Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan 713 104, India
2Ecology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan 713 104, India

Received 22 August 2013; Accepted 5 November 2013; Published 20 January 2014

Academic Editors: E. Mushinzimana and A. Pai

Copyright © 2014 Gargi Pal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Indirect interactions among community members impact on organisms. The effects of two snails, banded pond snail, Bellamya bengalensis (Lamarck), and Red-rimmed melania, Melanoides tuberculata (Müller), and tadpoles of Asian common toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider), on nonbiting midge larvae, Chironomus striatipennis Kieffer, were observed in experimental microcosm. Decrease in tube number and tube length of midge larvae was observed compared to control condition due to introduction of selected above mentioned organisms. The direct effects of non-predator organisms on the midge larvae are due to physical disturbance that destroys their tubes. This may result in vulnerability of midge larvae to predators in the wild. So the community structure may be altered by indirect effects, where one or more species, through their direct disturbance, indirectly change the abundance of other species.