Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 850782, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/850782
Research Article

Consequences of Physical Disturbance by Tadpoles and Snails on Chironomid Larvae

1Entomology Research Unit, Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan 713 104, India
2Ecology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan 713 104, India

Received 22 August 2013; Accepted 5 November 2013; Published 20 January 2014

Academic Editors: E. Mushinzimana and A. Pai

Copyright © 2014 Gargi Pal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. A. Abrams, “Implications of dynamically variable traits for identifying, classifying, and measuring direct and indirect effects in ecological communities,” The American Naturalist, vol. 146, no. 1, pp. 112–134, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. E. Werner and S. D. Peacor, “A review of trait-mediated indirect interactions in ecological communities,” Ecology, vol. 84, no. 5, pp. 1083–1100, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. Tilman, “Resource competition between planktonic algae: an experimental and theoretical approach,” Ecology, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 338–348, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. A. Hastings, “Disturbance, coexistence, history, and competition for space,” Theoretical Population Biology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 363–373, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. Kerfoot and A. Sih, Predation: Direct and Indirect Impacts on Aquatic Communities, University Press of New England, Hanover, NH, USA, 1987.
  6. O. J. Schmitz, “Direct and indirect effects of predation and predation risk in old-field interaction webs,” The American Naturalist, vol. 151, no. 4, pp. 327–342, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. O. J. Schmitz, V. Krivan, and O. Ovadia, “Trophic cascades: the primacy of trait-mediated indirect interactions,” Ecology Letters, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 153–163, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. C. Trussell, P. J. Ewanchuk, and C. M. Matassa, “Habitat effects on the relative importance of trait- and density-mediated indirect interactions,” Ecology Letters, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1245–1252, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. W. Schoener, “On the relative importance of direct versus indirect effects in ecological communities,” in Mutualism and Community Organization, H. Kawanabe, J. E. Cohen, and K. Iwasaki, Eds., pp. 365–411, Oxford University Press, Oxford, NY, USA, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  10. M. Tokeshi, “Production ecology,” in Chironomidae: Biology and Ecology of Nonbiting Midges, P. D. Armitage, P. S. Cranston, and L. C. V. Pinder, Eds., pp. 269–296, Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  11. S. P. Lawler, “Rice fields as temporary wetlands: a review,” Israel Journal of Zoology, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 513–528, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. Willassen and A. Bjørklund, “Emergence of Chironomidae (Diptera) and other insects from limnocorals with different fish densities: preliminary results from an experimental manipulation,” Acta Biologica Debrecina Supplementum Oecologica Hungarica, vol. 2, pp. 363–371, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  13. D. A. Wrubleski and D. M. Rosenberg, “The Chironomidae (diptera) of bone pile pond, Delta Marsh, Manitoba, Canada,” Wetlands, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 243–275, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. H. Tidwell, G. Schulmeister, C. Mahl, and S. Coyle, “Growth, survival, and biochemical composition of freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii fed natural food organisms under controlled conditions,” Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 123–132, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. W. A. Wais, G. Wolfram, B. Auer, E. Mikschi, and A. Hain, “Feeding habits of two introduced fish species (Lepomis gibbosus, Pseudorasbora parva) in Neusiedler Sea (Austria), with special reference to chironomid larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae),” Hydrobiologia, vol. 408-409, pp. 123–129, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. B. M. Walshe, “The feeding habits of certain Chironomid larvae (subfamily Tendipedinae),” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 63–79, 1951. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. F. Macchiusi and R. L. Baker, “Effects of predators and food availability on activity and growth of Chironomus tentans (Chironomidae: Diptera),” Freshwater Biology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 207–216, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Halpern, A. Gasith, and M. Broza, “Does the tube of a benthic chironomid larva play a role in protecting its dweller against chemical toxicants?” Hydrobiologia, vol. 470, pp. 49–55, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. Kikawada, N. Minakawa, M. Watanabe, and T. Okuda, “Factors inducing successful anhydrobiosis in the African chironomid Polypedilum vanderplanki: significance of the larval tubular nest,” Integrative & Comparative Biology, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 710–714, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. B. A. Menge, “Organization of the New England rocky intertidal community: role of predation, competition and environmental heterogeneity,” Ecological Monographs, vol. 46, pp. 355–393, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. J. Lubchenco and B. A. Menge, “Community development and persistence in a low rocky intertidal zone,” Ecological Monographs, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 67–94, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. D. R. Oliver and M. E. Roussel, Part II, The Genera of Larval Midges of Canada (Diptera: Chironomidae), vol. 1746 of The Insects and Arachnids of Canada, Biosystematics Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 1983.
  23. L. C. V. Pinder, “The larvae of Chironomidae (Diptera) of the Holarctic region,” in Chironomidae of the Holarctic Region, Keys and Diagnoses, Part 1: Larvae, T. Weiderholm, Ed., vol. 19, pp. 7–10, Entomologica Scandinavica Supplement, Lund, Sweden, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  24. J. H. Epler, Identification Manual for the Larval Chironomidae (Diptera) of Florida, Florida Department of Environment Protection, Division of Water Facilities, Tallahassee, Fla, USA, Revised edition, 1995.
  25. J. H. Zar, Biostatistical Analysis, Singapore, Pearson Education (Singapore) Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, India, 4th edition, 1999.
  26. P. R. Kinnear and C. D. Gray, SPPS for Windows Made Simple: Release 10, Psychology Press, Sussex, UK, 2000.
  27. M. Tokeshi and C. R. Townsend, “Random patch formation and weak competition: coexistence in an epiphytic chironomid community,” Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 833–845, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. L. P. Ruse, “Chironomid microdistribution in gravel of an English Chalk River,” Freshwater Biology, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 533–551, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. J. Lughart and J. B. Wallace, “Effects of disturbance on benthic functional response and production in mountain streams,” Journal of the North American Benthological Society, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 138–164, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. G. Martínez and R. Medel, “Indirect interactions in a microcosm-assembled cladoceran community: implications for apparent competition,” Oikos, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 111–115, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. P. Silver, D. Wooster, and M. A. Palmer, “Chironomid responses to spatially structured dynamic streambed landscapes,” Journal of the North American Benthological Society, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 60–77, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  32. W. O. McLarney, S. Henderson, and M. M. Sherman, “A new method for culturing Chironomus tentans Fabricius larvae using burlap substrate in fertilized pools,” Aquaculture, vol. 4, pp. 267–276, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. J. McLachlan, A. Brennan, and R. S. Wotton, “Particle size and chironomid (Diptera) food in an upland river,” Oikos, vol. 31, pp. 247–252, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  34. W. M. Beck, “Environmental requirements and pollution tolerance of common fresh water Chironomidae,” EPA 600/4-77-024, U.S. Environment Protection Agency, Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 1977.
  35. V. Ramcharan and C. G. Paterson, “A partial analysis of ecological segregation in the chironomid community of a bog lake,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 129–135, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. G. Aditya and G. K. Saha, “Predation of the beetle Rhantus sikkimensis (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) on the larvae of Chironomus Meigen (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the Darjeeling Himalayas of India,” Limnologica, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 251–257, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. E. M. De Haas, C. Wagner, A. A. Koelmans, M. H. S. Kraak, and W. Admiraal, “Habitat selection by chironomid larvae: fast growth requires fast food,” Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 148–155, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. K. Mousavi, “Boreal chironomid communities and their relations to environmental factors—the impact of lake depth, size and acidity,” Boreal Environment Research, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 63–75, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. Kornijów, “The impact of predation by perch on the size-structure of Chironomus larvae—the role of vertical distribution of the prey in the bottom sediments, and habitat complexity,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 342-343, pp. 207–213, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Kehl and K. Dettner, “Predation by pioneer water beetles (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae) from sandpit ponds, based on crop-content analysis and laboratory experiments,” Archiv für Hydrobiologie, vol. 158, no. 1, pp. 109–126, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus