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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 851473, 6 pages
Research Article

Toxicity Effects of Toad (Rhinella jimi Stevaux, 2002) Venom in Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)

1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência Animal, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA), BR 110 Km 47, 59628-360 Mossoró, RN, Brazil
2Departamento de Clínica e Cirurgia Veterinárias, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Avenida Antônio Carlos 6627, 31275-013 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

Received 11 April 2014; Accepted 3 June 2014; Published 19 June 2014

Academic Editor: Ingo Nolte

Copyright © 2014 Ivana Cristina Nunes Gadelha et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study aimed to evaluate the pathological changes that occur after administering different doses of R. jimi (Stevaux, 2002) parotoid glands secretion to Gallus gallus domesticus chicks. Twenty-three animals were used in this study and were divided into 5 groups that received a toad venom dose of 0, 3.0 mg/kg, 6.0 mg/kg, 10.0 mg/kg, and 25.0 mg/kg. After 48 h, the necropsy and pathological examinations were performed. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in any group. Macroscopically, hepatomegaly, areas of liver necrosis, splenomegaly, necrotic and hemorrhagic cardiac regions, hydropericardium, dark necrotic lesions of Meckel’s diverticulum, and hemorrhages in the lungs and kidneys were detected. Histopathological changes included diffuse vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, severe sinusoidal congestion, focal areas of hemorrhage in the parenchyma, swollen cardiac fibers, necrotic myocardial fibers, moderate to acute diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, vacuolar degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium, necrosis of renal tubules, and extensive hemorrhagic areas below the brain and cerebellar meninges. In conclusion, pathological changes of the R. jimi toxins in chicks were noted in the heart, spleen, liver, Meckel’s diverticulum, lungs, and kidneys. Most of the changes were similar to those observed in humans and animals exposed to toxins from other toad species.