Table 1: Descriptive statistics (1995–2009, observations = 630).

VariableMinimum Mean Maximum Std-deviation

lnHCE 1.344 3.347 6.365 1.034
lnGDP4.634 6.344 9.213 1.029
lnPOP65 0.637 1.128 1.936 0.245
lnIMR 1.411 4.238 5.071 0.619
22 lower income countries Benin; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Central African Republic; Chad; Comoros; Congo, Dem.Rep; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Kenya; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mozambique; Niger; Rwanda; Sierra Leone; Tanzania; Togo; Uganda
20 middle income countries Angola; Algeria; Botswana; Cameroon; Congo, Rep.; Cote d’Ivoire; Djibouti; Egypt, Arab Rep.; Ghana; Gabon; Lesotho; Mauritania; Mauritius; Nigeria; Senegal; Sudan; South Africa; Swaziland; Tunisia; Zambia