Table 2: Parametric estimation results.

VariableParametric modelSemiparametric model
1 2

Constant−1.0293** (0.5296)−0.1887 (0.8002)
lnGDP 0.9882*** (0.0261)0.7583*** (0.1662)
lnGDP2 0.0177* (0.0104)
lnIMR−0.5525*** (0.0783)−0.5563*** (0.0784)−0.8574*** (0.2140)
lnPOP65 0.3895**(0.1672) 0.3074* (0.1770)0.5156 (0.5521)
Country dummies Yes Yes Yes
Year dummies Yes Yes Yes
Adjusted -square 0.7718 0.7710 0.4142

The dependent variable is lnHCE. Robust standard errors in parentheses.
*Significant at the 10% level.
**Significant at the 5% level.
***Significant at the 1% level.