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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 946924, 6 pages
Clinical Study

The Comparison of Pain Caused by Suprapubic Aspiration and Transurethral Catheterization Methods for Sterile Urine Collection in Neonates: A Randomized Controlled Study

1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran
2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran
3Division of Neonatology, Boo-Ali Sina Teaching Hospital, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 48158-38477, Sari, Iran

Received 10 August 2013; Accepted 22 October 2013; Published 23 January 2014

Academic Editors: D. Gozal and G. Naulaers

Copyright © 2014 Vajihe Ghaffari et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study was performed to compare the levels of pain experienced by young infants undergoing either suprapubic aspiration (SPA) or transurethral catheterization (TUC) for the collection of sterile urine samples. This prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted in hospitalized neonates in a university-affiliated hospital. Patients who required urine cultures were randomly assigned into one of two groups, the SPA or TUC group. The infants’ faces were videotaped, and the changes in the facial expression and physiological parameters during the procedure were scored using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) in a blind manner. The primary outcome was the severity of the pain experienced during each procedure, and the secondary outcomes were the success rate, the duration, and the complications of each procedure. Ninety-four percent of male infants in the TUC group and 77.3% in the SPA group were uncircumcised ( ). The mean (SD) of the PIPP pain scores did not differ between groups (9.95 ± 3.7 in SPA and 9.64 ± 3.2 in TUC, ). The duration of TUC was longer. Both methods can be used to collect urine from neonates, but the difficulty of performing TUC on females and uncircumcised males should be considered.