Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 960745, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/960745
Research Article

Psychosocial Adjustment to Sex Reassignment Surgery: A Qualitative Examination and Personal Experiences of Six Transsexual Persons in Croatia

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, Ivana Lucica 3, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

Received 7 February 2014; Accepted 4 March 2014; Published 25 March 2014

Academic Editors: M. Bizic and M. L. Djordjevic

Copyright © 2014 Nataša Jokić-Begić et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. Clements-Nolle, R. Marx, R. Guzman, and M. Katz, “HIV prevalence, risk behaviors, health care use, and mental health status of transgender persons: implications for public health intervention,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 915–921, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. U. Hepp, B. Kraemer, U. Schnyder, N. Miller, and A. Delsignore, “Psychiatric comorbidity in gender identity disorder,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 259–261, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. N. K. Rotondi, “Depression in trans people: a review of the risk factors,” International Journal of Transgenderism, vol. 13, pp. 104–116, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  4. S. Maguen, J. C. Shipherd, and H. N. Harris, “Providing culturally sensitive care for transgender patients,” Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 479–490, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. L. Nadal, A. Skolnik, and Y. Wong, “Interpersonal and systemic microaggressions toward transgender people: implications for counseling,” Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 55–82, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. I. H. Meyer, “Minority stress and mental health in gay men,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 38–56, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. W. Bockting, “The impact of stigma on transgender identity development and mental health,” in Gender Dysphoria and Disorders of Sex Development, B. P. C. Kreukels, T. D. Steensma, and A. L. C. de Vries, Eds., pp. 319–330, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  8. A. T. Norton and G. M. Herek, “Heterosexuals' attitudes toward transgender people: findings from a national probability sample of U.S. Adults,” Sex Roles, vol. 68, no. 11-12, pp. 738–753, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. European Commission and Directorate-General for Justice, On Human Rights, Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity at the United Nations, Office for Official Publications of European Union, Luxemburg, Wis, USA, 2012.
  10. G. de Cuypere and L. Gijs, “Care for adults with gender dysphoria,” in Gender Dysphoria and Disorders of Sex Development, B. P. C. Kreukels, T. D. Steensma, and A. L. C. de Vries, Eds., pp. 231–254, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  11. J. À Campo, H. Nijman, H. Merckelbach, and C. Evers, “Psychiatric comorbidity of gender identity disorders: a survey among dutch psychiatrists,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 160, no. 7, pp. 1332–1336, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. K. Gupta, “Trans-sexuality: cultural issues involved in the management,” Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 233–234, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. K. Newman, “Sex, gender and culture: issues in the definition, assessment and treatment of gender identity disorder,” Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 352–359, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Hedjazi, M. Zarenezhad, A. Hoseinzadeh, R. Hassanzadeh, and S. M. Hosseini, “Socio-demographic characteristics of transsexuals referred to the forensic medicine center in southwest of Iran,” North American Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 224–227, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  15. N. Jokić-Begić, “Psychosocial characteristics of transsexual subjects in Croatia,” Socijalna Psihijatrija, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 116–124, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Štulhofer and I. Rimac, “Determinants of homonegativity in Europe,” Journal of Sex Research, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 24–32, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Božić and D. Almesberger, Family Acceptance of Sexual and Gender Minorities: Research Results, Lesbian organization Lori, Rijeka, Croatia, 2007.
  18. N. Jokić-Begić, A. Babić Čikaš, T. Jurin, E. Lučev, D. Markanović, and S. Ručević, “Transsexuality: living in a wrong body?” Liječnički Vjesnik, vol. 130, no. 9-10, pp. 237–247, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  19. D. M. Seršić and G. Vuletić, “Psychometric evaluation and establishing norms of Croatian SF-36 Health Survey: framework for subjective health research,” Croatian Medical Journal, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 95–102, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. N. Jokić-Begić, A. Lauri Korajlija, T. Jurin, and C. Evans, “Factor structure, psychometric properties and cut-off scores of Croatian version of Clinical Outcomes in Routines Evaluation—Outcome Measure (CORE-OM),” Psychological Topiscs. In press.
  21. C. Evans, J. Connell, M. Barkham et al., “Towards a standardised brief outcome measure: psychometric properties and utility of the CORE-OM,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 180, pp. 51–60, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. I. Skre, O. Friborg, S. Elgarøy et al., “The factor structure and psychometric properties of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation—Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) in Norwegian clinical and non-clinical samples,” BMC Psychiatry, vol. 13, pp. 99–112, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  23. P. F. Lovibond and S. H. Lovibond, “The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories,” Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 335–343, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. N. Jokić-Begić, Z. Suranyi, N. Jakšić, and E. Ivezić, “Validation of n version of the depression anxiety stress scale (DASS-21),” in Paper Presented at the Meeting Psychological Days in Zadar, Zagreb, Croatia, May 2012.
  25. E. Coleman, W. Bockting, M. Botzer et al., “Standards of care for the health of transsexual, transgender, and gender-nonconforming people, version 7,” International Journal of Transgenderism, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 165–232, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  26. S. Whittle, L. Turner, R. Coombs, and S. Rhodes, Transgender Eurostudy: Legal Survey and Focus on the Transgender Experience of Health Care, ILGA Europe, 2008.
  27. I. Grabovac, M. Abramović, G. Komlenović, and J. Mustajbegović, “Under rug swept: discrimination of LGBTIQ patients in Croatia,” http://www.zagreb-pride.net/web/images/stories/dokumenti/under rug swept-discrimination of lgbtiq patients in croatia.pdf.
  28. R. C. Berg, M. W. Ross, P. Weatherburn, and A. J. Schmidt, “Structural and environmental factors are associated with internalised homonegativity in men who have sex with men: findings from the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS) in 38 countries,” Social Science & Medicine, vol. 78, pp. 61–69, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  29. M. H. Murad, M. B. Elamin, M. Z. Garcia et al., “Hormonal therapy and sex reassignment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of quality of life and psychosocial outcomes,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 214–231, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. Dhejne, P. Lichtenstein, M. Boman, A. L. V. Johansson, N. Långström, and M. Landén, “Long-term follow-up of transsexual persons undergoing sex reassignment surgery: cohort study in Sweden,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 2, Article ID e16885, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Y. L. S. Smith, S. H. M. Van Goozen, A. J. Kuiper, and P. T. Cohen-Kettenis, “Sex reassignment: outcomes and predictors of treatment for adolescent and adult transsexuals,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 89–99, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Lawrence, “Factors associated with satisfaction or regret following male-to-female sex reassignment surgery,” Archives of Sexual Behavior, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 299–315, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  33. S. Winter, “Language and identity in transgender: gender wars, anatomania, and the thai kathoey,” in Problematizing Identity: Everyday Struggles in Language, Culture, and Education, A. M. Y. Lin, Ed., pp. 119–136, Routledge, NY, USA, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  34. D. Kulick, “Transcender and language: a review of the literature and suggestions for the future,” A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 605–622, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Bucholtz and K. Hall, “Identity and interaction: a sociocultural linguistic approach,” Discourse Studies, vol. 7, no. 4-5, pp. 585–614, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. A. Lawrence, “Societal individualism predicts prevalence of nonhomosexual orientation in male-to-female transsexualism,” Archives of Sexual Behavior, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 573–583, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. W. Meyer III, W. O. Bockting, P. Cohen-Kettenis et al., “The Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association's standards of care for gender identity disorders, version 6,” Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1–30, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  38. P. A. Albinsson and B. Yasanthi Perera, “Alternative marketplaces in the 21st century: building community through sharing events,” Journal of Consumer Behaviour, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 303–315, 2012. View at Google Scholar