Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 963638, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/963638
Research Article

Long Term Effects of Tear Gases on Respiratory System: Analysis of 93 Cases

1Department of Chest Diseases, Duzce University Medical Faculty, Düzce, Turkey
2Emergency Department, Ankara Numune State Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
3Department of Chest Diseases, Ankara University Medical Faculty, Ankara, Turkey
4Department of Chest Disease, Private Practice, Ankara, Turkey
5Department of Chest Diseases, Istanbul University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey
6Department of Chest Diseases, Pamukkale University Medical Faculty, Denizli, Turkey

Received 22 April 2014; Revised 20 June 2014; Accepted 1 July 2014; Published 22 July 2014

Academic Editor: Shuguang Leng

Copyright © 2014 Peri Arbak et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. Hu, J. Fine, P. Epstein, K. Kelsey, P. Reynolds, and B. Walker, “Tear gas—harassing agent or toxic chemical weapon?” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 262, no. 5, pp. 660–663, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. G. Smith and W. Stopford, “Health hazards of pepper spray,” North Carolina medical journal, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 268–274, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Park and S. T. Giammona, “Toxic effects of tear gas on an infant following prolonged exposure,” The American Journal of Diseases of Children, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 245–246, 1972. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. H. Hu and D. Christiani, “Reactive airways dysfunction after exposure to teargas,” The Lancet, vol. 339, no. 8808, p. 1535, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Y. G. Karagama, J. R. Newton, and C. J. R. Newbegin, “Short-term and long-term physical effects of exposure to CS spray,” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 172–174, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. H. Steffee, P. E. Lantz, L. M. Flannagan, R. L. Thompson, and D. R. Jason, “Oleoresin capsicum (pepper) spray and “in-custody deaths”,” The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 185–192, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. Tabipleri Birliği, Kimyasal Silahlar Gösteri Kontrol Ajanları. Birinci Baskı, Ağustos 2011, Ankara Türk Tabipleri Birliği Yayınları.
  8. “Standardization of spirometry, 1994 update. American Thoracic Society,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 152, no. 3, pp. 1107–1136, 1995.
  9. B. Ballantyne, “Peripheral sensory irritation: basics and applications,” in General and Applied Toxicology, B. Ballantyne, T. C. Marrs, and T. Syversen, Eds., vol. 2, pp. 611–630, Macmillan Reference, London, UK, 2nd edition, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  10. B. Ballantyne, “Peripheral chemosensory irritation with particular reference to respiratory tract exposure,” in Inhalation Toxicology, H. Salem and S. Katz, Eds., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2nd edition, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  11. B. Ballantyne and H. Salem, “Forensic aspects of riot control agents,” in Riot Control Agents: Issues in Toxicology, Safety, and Health, E. J. Olajos and W. Stopford, Eds., pp. 231–258, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  12. P. Blanc, D. Liu, C. Juarez, and H. A. Boushey, “Cough in hot pepper workers,” Chest, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 27–32, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. O. Y. Chan, C. S. Lee, K. T. Tan, and T. Thirumoorthy, “Health problems among spice grinders,” Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 111–115, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Emad and G. R. Rezaian, “The diversity of the effects of sulfur mustard gas inhalation on respiratory system 10 years after a single, heavy exposure: analysis of 197 cases,” Chest, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 734–738, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Hefazi, D. Attaran, M. Mahmoudi, and M. Balali-Mood, “Late respiratory complications of mustard gas poisoning in Iranian veterans,” Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 587–592, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. N. Lankatilake and C. G. Uragoda, “Respiratory function in chilli grinders,” Occupational Medicine, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 139–142, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus