Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 986784, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/986784
Research Article

Ultrastructural and Molecular Changes in the Developing Small Intestine of the Toad Bufo regularis

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Menoufiya University, Shebeen El-Koom, Egypt

Received 19 August 2013; Accepted 22 October 2013; Published 13 March 2014

Academic Editors: H. Arakawa, K. Katona, and K. Osada

Copyright © 2014 S. A. Sakr et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. L. Kramer and M. J. Bryant, “Intestine length in the fishes of a tropical stream: 1. Ontogenetic allometry,” Environmental Biology of Fishes, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 115–127, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. Pretty, T. Naitoh, and R. Wassersug, “Metamorphic shortening of the alimentary tract in anuran larvae (Rana catesbeiana),” The Anatomical Record, vol. 242, no. 3, pp. 417–423, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  3. J. C. Kaltenbach, A. E. Fry, K. M. Colpitts, and E. E. Faszewski, “Apoptosis in the digestive tract of herbivorous Rana pipienss larvae and carnivorous Ceratophrys ornata larvae: an immunohistochemical study,” Journal of Morphology, vol. 273, no. 1, pp. 103–108, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. Clarke and S. Clarke, “Nineteenth century research on cell death,” Experimental Oncology, vol. 34, pp. 139–145, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  5. A. Ishizuya-Oka, “Apoptosis of larval cells during amphibian metamorphosis,” Microscopy Research and Technique, vol. 34, pp. 228–235, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  6. A. Ishizuya-Oka, T. Hasebe, and Y.-B. Shi, “Apoptosis in amphibian organs during metamorphosis,” Apoptosis, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 350–364, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J.-M. Exbrayat, E. Moudilou, L. Abrouk, and C. Brun, “Apoptosis in amphibian development,” Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, vol. 3, pp. 669–678, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  8. V. Maghsoudi, Z. Zakeri, and R. Lockshin, “Programmed cell death and apoptosis—where it came from and where it is going: from Elie Metchnikoff to the control of caspases,” Experimental Oncology, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 146–152, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  9. Y. Gavrieli, Y. Sherman, and S. A. Ben-Sasson, “Identification of programmed cell death in situ via specific labeling of nuclear DNA fragmentation,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 119, no. 3, pp. 493–501, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Y.-B. Shi, L. Fu, S. C. V. Hsia, A. Tomita, and D. Buchholz, “Thyroid hormone regulation of apoptotic tissue remodeling during anuran metamorphosis,” Cell Research, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 245–252, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. A. Bonneville and M. Weinstock, “Brush border development in the intestinal absorptive cells of Xenopus during metamorphosis,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 151–171, 1970. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. E. Bodegas, A. C. Villaro, M. A. Burrell et al., “An immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study of the larval anterior intestine of the frog Rana temporaria, with especial reference to endocrine cells,” Tissue & Cell, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 549–559, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. McAvoy and K. Dixon, “Cell proliferation and renewal in the small intestinal epithelium of metamorphosing and adult Xenopus laevis,” Journal of Experimental Zoology, vol. 202, no. 1, pp. 129–138, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. J. W. McAvoy and K. E. Dixon, “Cell specialization in the small intestinal epithelium of adult Xenopus laevis: structural aspects,” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 125, no. 1, pp. 155–169, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Y. A. Ioannou and F. W. Chen, “Quantitation of DNA fragmentation in apoptosis,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 992–993, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. G. Ormerod, X.-M. Sun, D. Brown, R. T. Snowden, and G. M. Cohen, “Quantification of apoptosis and necrosis by flow cytometry,” Acta Oncologica, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 417–424, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Sedra and M. Michael, “Normal table of the Egyptian toad, Bufo regularis Reuss, with an addendum on the standardization of the stages considered in previous publications,” Ceskoslovenská Morfologie, vol. 9, pp. 333–351, 1961. View at Google Scholar
  18. G. Badawy, S. Sakr, and H. El-Borm, “Morphological and histological remodeling of the gastrointestinal tract of the toad Bufo regularis during ontogeny,” The Egyptian Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 8, pp. 67–81, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  19. A. Glauert, “Fixation, dehydration and embedding of biological specimens,” in Practical Methods in Electron Microscopy, A. Glauert, Ed., North Holland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  20. M. Karnovsky, “A formaldehyde-glutraldehyde fixative of high osmolarity for use in electron microscopy,” The Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 27, p. 137, 1965. View at Google Scholar
  21. K. Burton, “Determination of DNA concentration with diphenylamine,” in Methods in Enzymology, L. Grossan and K. Moldavf, Eds., vol. 13B, pp. 163–166, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1968. View at Google Scholar
  22. D. Wlodek, J. Banath, and P. L. Olive, “Comparison between pulsed-field and constant-field gel electrophoresis for measurement of DNA double-strand breaks in irradiated Chinese hamster ovary cells,” International Journal of Radiation Biology, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 779–790, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. M. Aljanabi and I. Martinez, “Universal and rapid salt-extraction of high quality genomic DNA for PCR-based techniques,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 25, no. 22, pp. 4692–4693, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. B. Tribukait, G. Moberger, and A. Zetterberg, “Methodological aspects of rapid-flow cytoflurometry for DNA analysis of human urinary bladder cells,” in Pulse-Cytophotometry, Part 1, pp. 50–60, European Press, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  25. J. J. Cohen and M. Al-Rubeai, “Apoptosis-targeted therapies: the ‘next big thing' in biotechnology?” Trends in Biotechnology, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 281–283, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. N. Dean and J. H. Jett, “Mathematical analysis of DNA distributions derived from flow microfluorometry,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 523–527, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Ishizuya-Oka and A. Shimozawa, “Development of the connective tissue in the digestive tract of the larval and metamorphosing Xenopus laevis,” Anatomischer Anzeiger, vol. 164, no. 2, pp. 81–93, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. H. Lalremsanga and R. Hooroo, “Remodeling of the intestine during metamorphosis of Microhyla berdmorei (Anura: Microhylidae),” International Multidisciplinary Research Journal, vol. 2, pp. 35–40, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  29. T. Hasebe, L. Fu, T. Miller, Y. Zhang, Y. Shi, and A. Ishizuya-Oka, “Thyroid hormone-induced cell-cell interactions are required for the development of adult intestinal stem cell,” Cell & Bioscience, vol. 3, pp. 18–27, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  30. A. Ishizuya-Oka and A. Shimozawa, “Changes in lectin-binding pattern in the digestive tract of Xenopus laevis during metamorphosis. II. Small intestine,” Journal of Morphology, vol. 205, no. 1, pp. 9–15, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Ishizuya-Oka and Y.-B. Shi, “Regulation of adult intestinal epithelial stem cell development by thyroid hormone during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis,” Developmental Dynamics, vol. 236, no. 12, pp. 3358–3368, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Ishizuya-Oka and A. Shimozawa, “Connective tissue is involved in adult epithelial development of the small intestine during anuran metamorphosis in vitro,” Roux's Archives of Developmental Biology, vol. 201, no. 5, pp. 322–329, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Ishizuya-Oka, “Amphibian organ remodeling during metamorphosis: insight into thyroid hormone-induced apoptosis,” Development Growth and Differentiation, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 202–212, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. H. Wyllie, J. F. R. Kerr, and A. R. Currie, “Cell death: the significance of apoptosis,” International Review of Cytology, vol. 68, pp. 251–306, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. H. Zhang and M. Xu, “DNA fragmentation in apoptosis,” Cell Research, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 205–211, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. Savill, V. Fadok, P. Henson, and C. Haslett, “Phagocyte recognition of cells undergoing apoptosis,” Immunology Today, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 131–136, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. R. Tata, “Hormonal regulation of programmed cell death during amphibian metamorphosis,” Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 72, no. 11-12, pp. 581–588, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. L. Freeman and A. L. Rayburn, “Metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis is not associated with large-scale nuclear DNA content variation,” Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 207, no. 25, pp. 4473–4477, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. Fritz, J. Fritz, and W. Ulrich, “Flow cytometric determination of changes in cellular DNA content during development of Xenopus laevis,” in Cytogenetics of Amphibians and Reptiles, E. Olmo, Ed., pp. 129–133, World Congress of Herpetology., Canterbury, UK, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  40. R. A. Heimeier, B. Das, D. R. Buchholz, M. Fiorentino, and Y.-B. Shi, “Studies on Xenopus laevis intestine reveal biological pathways underlying vertebrate gut adaptation from embryo to adult,” Genome Biology, vol. 11, no. 5, article R55, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. D. Roberts, “Molecular mechanisms of development of the gastrointestinal tract,” Developmental Dynamics, vol. 219, pp. 109–120, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  42. K. Nakajima, K. Fujimoto, and Y. Yaoita, “Programmed cell death during amphibian metamorphosis,” Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 271–280, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. D. D. Brown and L. Cai, “Amphibian metamorphosis,” Developmental Biology, vol. 306, no. 1, pp. 20–33, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus