Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 989501, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/989501
Review Article

Intravitreal Steroids for the Treatment of Retinal Diseases

1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Udine, Piazza Santa Maria della Misericordia, 33100 Udine, Italy
2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Sassari, Piazza D’Armi, 07100 Sassari, Italy

Received 19 August 2013; Accepted 10 October 2013; Published 8 January 2014

Academic Editors: N. Gupta and F. M. Penha

Copyright © 2014 Valentina Sarao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. R. Nachod, “ACTH and cortisone in ocular disease,” Journal of the American Medical Women's Association, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 453–455, 1951. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. B.-S. Kang, E.-Y. Chung, Y.-P. Yun et al., “Inhibitory effects of anti-inflammatory drugs on interleukin-6 bioactivity,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 701–703, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. P. Umland, D. K. Nahrebne, S. Razac et al., “The inhibitory effects of topically active glucocorticoids on IL-4, IL-5, and interferon-γ production by cultured primary CD4+ T cells,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 511–519, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. Floman and U. Zor, “Mechanism of steroid action in ocular inflammation: inhibition of prostaglandin production,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 69–73, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. N. Bandi and U. B. Kompella, “Budesonide reduces vascular endothelial growth factor secretion and expression in airway (Calu-1) and alveolar (A549) epithelial cells,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 425, no. 2, pp. 109–116, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Fischer, D. Renz, W. Schaper, and G. F. Karliczek, “In vitro effects of dexamethasone on hypoxia-induced hyperpermeability and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 411, no. 3, pp. 231–243, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. A. Wilson, B. A. Berkowitz, Y. Sato, N. Ando, J. T. Handa, and E. De Juan Jr., “Treatment with intravitreal steroid reduces blood-retinal barrier breakdown due to retinal photocoagulation,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 110, no. 8, pp. 1155–1159, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. N. Naveh and C. Weissman, “Prolonged corticosteroid treatment exerts transient inhibitory effect on prostaglandin E2 release from rabbits' eyes,” Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 101–105, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. D. Lewis, W. B. Campbell, and A. R. Johnson, “Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis of glucocorticoids in human endothelial cells,” Endocrinology, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 62–69, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. T. Heffernan, S. Futterman, and R. E. Kalina, “Dexamethasone inhibition of experimental endothelial cell proliferation in retinal venules,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 565–568, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. Bhattacherjee, R. N. Williams, and K. E. Eakins, “A comparison of the ocular anti-inflammatory activity of steroidal and nonsteroidal compounds in the rat,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1143–1146, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. W. S. Eisenstadt and E. B. Cohen, “Osteoporosis and compression fractures from prolonged cortisone and corticotropin therapy,” Annals of Allergy, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 252–256, 1965. View at Google Scholar
  13. T. Livanou, D. Ferriman, and V. H. James, “Recovery of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function after corticosteroid therapy,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 7521, pp. 856–859, 1967. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. M. Beer, S. J. Bakri, R. J. Singh, W. Liu, G. B. Peters III, and M. Miller, “Intraocular concentration and pharmacokinetics of triamcinolone acetonide after a single intravitreal injection,” Ophthalmology, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 681–686, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. H. Geroski and H. F. Edelhauser, “Transscleral drug delivery for posterior segment disease,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 37–48, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. A. Bonini-Filho, R. Jorge, J. C. Barbosa, D. Calucci, J. A. Cardillo, and R. A. Costa, “Intravitreal injection versus sub-tenon's infusion of triamcinolone acetonide for refractory diabetic macular edema: a randomized clinical trial,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 3845–3849, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. A. Cardillo, L. A. S. Melo Jr., R. A. Costa et al., “Comparison of intravitreal versus posterior sub-Tenon's capsule injection of triamcinolone acetonide for diffuse diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology, vol. 112, no. 9, pp. 1557–1563, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Ş. Özdek, U. A. Bahçeci, G. Gürelik, and B. Hasanreisoǧlu, “Posterior subtenon and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for diabetic macular edema,” Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 246–251, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Y. J. Choi, I. K. Oh, J. R. Oh, and K. Huh, “Intravitreal versus posterior subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide for diabetic macular edema,” Korean journal of ophthalmology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 205–209, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. J. Bakri and P. K. Kaiser, “Posterior subtenon triamcinolone acetonide for refractory diabetic macular edema,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 290–294, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Cellini, A. Pazzaglia, E. Zamparini, P. Leonetti, and E. C. Campos, “Intravitreal vs. subtenon triamcinolone acetonide for the treatment of diabetic cystoid macular edema,” BMC Ophthalmology, vol. 8, article 5, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. Veritti, P. Lanzetta, L. Perissin, and F. Bandello, “Posterior juxtascleral infusion of modified triamcinolone acetonide formulation for refractory diabetic macular edema: one-year follow-up,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 2391–2397, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P. Lanzetta, D. Veritti, G. Dal Mas, and V. Sarao, “Juxtascleral injection of a formulation of commercially available triamcinolone acetonide and viscoelastic agent in refractory diabetic macular edema,” Paper Presented at: Retina Society, Rome, Italy, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  24. D. Veritti, P. Lanzetta, L. Perissin, and F. Bandello, “Posterior juxtascleral infusion of modified triamcinolone acetonide formulation for refractory diabetic macular edema: one-year follow-up,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 2391–2397, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. Machemer, G. Sugita, and Y. Tano, “Treatment of intraocular proliferations with intravitreal steroids,” Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society, vol. 77, pp. 171–180, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. Avitabile, A. Longo, and A. Reibaldi, “Intravitreal triamcinolone compared with macular laser grid photocoagulation for the treatment of cystoid macular edema,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 140, no. 4, pp. 695–702, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. C. Gillies, F. K. P. Sutter, J. M. Simpson, J. Larsson, H. Ali, and M. Zhu, “Intravitreal triamcinolone for refractory diabetic macular edema. Two-year results of a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial,” Ophthalmology, vol. 113, no. 9, pp. 1533–1538, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. B. Jonas, B. A. Kamppeter, B. Harder, U. Vossmerbaeumer, G. Sauder, and U. H. M. Spandau, “Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for diabetic macular edema: a prospective, randomized study,” Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 200–207, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. G. Hardman, L. E. Limbird, and A. G. Gilman, Goodman and Gilman's the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, McGraw-Hill, 10th edition, 2001.
  30. M. B. Abelson, A. H. Neufeld, and T. M. Topping, Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology, WB Saunders, 1994.
  31. G. N. Scholes, W. J. O'Brien, G. W. Abrams, and M. F. Kubicek, “Clearance of triamcinolone from vitreous,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 103, no. 10, pp. 1567–1569, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. F. Audren, M. Tod, P. Massin et al., “Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of the effect of triamcinolone acetonide on central macular thickness in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 3435–3441, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Inoue, K. Takeda, K. Morita, M. Yamada, Y. Tanigawara, and Y. Oguchi, “Vitreous concentrations of triamcinolone acetonide in human eyes after intravitreal or subtenon injection,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 138, no. 6, pp. 1046–1048, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. Veritti, L. Perissin, S. Zorzet, and P. Lanzetta, “The effect of triamcinolone acetonide, sodium hyaluronate, and chondroitin sulfate on human endothelial cells: An in vitro study,” European Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 75–79, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. F. Audren, A. Erginay, B. Haouchine et al., “Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for diffuse diabetic macular oedema: 6-month results of a prospective controlled trial,” Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, vol. 84, no. 5, pp. 624–630, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. Hauser, A. Bukelman, R. Pokroy et al., “Intravitreal triamcinolone for diabetic macular edema: comparison of 1, 2, and 4 mg,” Retina, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 825–830, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. D. S. C. Lam, C. K. M. Chan, S. Mohamed et al., “A prospective randomised trial of different doses of intravitreal triamcinolone for diabetic macular oedema,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 199–203, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. Massin, F. Audren, B. Haouchine et al., “Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for diabetic diffuse macular edema: preliminary results of a prospective controlled trial,” Ophthalmology, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 218–224, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. F. Bandello, D. R. Pognuz, A. Pirracchio, and A. Polito, “Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for florid proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 242, no. 12, pp. 1024–1027, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. Yilmaz, C. D. Weaver, M. J. Gallagher et al., “Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection for treatment of refractory diabetic macular edema: a systematic review,” Ophthalmology, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 902–913, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Three-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing focal/grid photocoagulation and intravitreal triamcinolone for diabetic macular edema,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 127, no. 3, pp. 245–251, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. J. Augustin and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Verteporfin and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide combination therapy for occult choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 141, no. 4, pp. 638–645, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. F. Spaide, J. Sorenson, and L. Maranan, “Combined photodynamic therapy with verteporfin and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology, vol. 110, no. 8, pp. 1517–1525, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. N. Singh and D. A. Saperstein, “Combination treatment with reduced-fluence photodynamic therapy and intravitreal injection of triamcinolone for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in macular degeneration,” Retina, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 789–793, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. E. Rechtman, V. D. Allen, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, A. Harris, and M. A. Speicher, “Intravitreal triamcinolone for choroidal neovascularization in ocular histoplasmosis syndrome,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 136, no. 4, pp. 739–741, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. S. Ip, I. U. Scott, P. C. van Veldhuisen et al., “A randomized trial comparing the efficacy and safety of intravitreal triamcinolone with observation to treat vision loss associated with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: the standard care vs corticosteroid for retinal vein occlusion (SCORE) study report 5,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 127, no. 9, pp. 1101–1114, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. I. U. Scott, M. S. Ip, P. C. van Veldhuisen et al., “A randomized trial comparing the efficacy and safety of intravitreal triamcinolone with standard care to treat vision loss associated with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion: the standard care vs corticosteroid for retinal vein occlusion (SCORE) study report 6,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 127, no. 9, pp. 1115–1128, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. B. Jonas, I. Kreissig, and R. F. Degenring, “Neovascular glaucoma treated by intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide,” Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 540–541, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. W. Chen, H. Chen, P. Hou, A. Fok, Y. Hu, and D. S. C. Lam, “Midterm results of low-dose intravitreal triamcinolone as adjunctive treatment for proliferative vitreoretinopathy,” Retina, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1137–1142, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. B. Jonas, I. Kreissig, and R. F. Degenring, “Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for pseudophakic cystoid macular edema,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 136, no. 2, pp. 384–386, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. C. D. Alldredge and B. R. Garretson, “Intravitreal triamcinolone for the treatment of idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasis,” Retina, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 113–116, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. B. Jonas, “Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for treatment of sympathetic ophthalmia,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 367–368, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. B. Jonas, I. Kreissig, and R. F. Degenring, “Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide as treatment of ischemic ophthalmopathy,” European Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 575–576, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. B. Jonas, “Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide as treatment for extensive exudative retinal detachment,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 587–588, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. F. K. P. Sutter and M. C. Gillies, “Intravitreal triamcinolone for radiation-induced macular edema,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 121, no. 10, pp. 1491–1493, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. H. Ozdemir, M. Karacorlu, and S. Karacorlu, “Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for treatment of cystoid macular oedema in patients with retinitis pigmentosa,” Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 248–251, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. Karacorlu, S. Arf Karacorlu, and H. Ozdemir, “Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome,” European Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 481–483, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. S. M. Couch and S. J. Bakri, “Intravitreal triamcinolone for intraocular inflammation and associated macular edema,” Clinical Ophthalmology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 41–47, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. C. M. Lee and R. J. Olk, “Modified grid laser photocoagulation for diffuse diabetic macular edema: long-term visual results,” Ophthalmology, vol. 98, no. 10, pp. 1594–1602, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “A randomized trial comparing intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and focal/grid photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology, vol. 115, no. 9, pp. 1447–1449, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “Expanded 2-year follow-up of ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser or triamcinolone plus prompt laser for diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 609–614, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. K. S. Choi, J. K. Chung, and S. H. Lim, “Laser photocoagulation combined with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection in proliferative diabetic retinopathy with macular edema,” Korean Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 11–17, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. B. Kaderli, R. Avci, O. Gelisken, and A. Â. Yucel, “Intravitreal triamcinolone as an adjunct in the treatment of concomitant proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diffuse diabetic macular oedema,” International Ophthalmology, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 207–214, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. D. N. Zacks and M. W. Johnson, “Combined intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide and panretinal photocoagulation for concomitant diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” Retina, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 135–140, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. W. M. Zein, B. N. Noureddin, F. A. Jurdi, A. Schakal, and Z. F. Bashshur, “Panretinal photocoagulation and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for the management of proliferative diabetic retinopathy with macular edema,” Retina, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 137–142, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. F. Bandello, A. Polito, D. R. Pognuz, P. Monaco, A. Dimastrogiovanni, and J. Paissios, “Triamcinolone as adjunctive treatment to laser panretinal photocoagulation for proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 124, no. 5, pp. 643–650, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. O. O. Maia Jr., B. S. Takahashi, R. A. Costa, I. U. Scott, and W. Y. Takahashi, “Combined laser and intravitreal triamcinolone for proliferative diabetic retinopathy and macular edema: one-year results of a randomized clinical trial,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 147, no. 2, pp. 291–597, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. E. Kim, J. S. Pollack, D. G. Miller, R. A. Mittra, and R. F. Spaide, “ISIS-DME: a prospective, randomized, dose-escalation intravitreal steroid injection study for refractory diabetic macular edema,” Retina, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 735–740, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. B. Jonas, B. A. Kamppeter, B. Harder, U. Vossmerbaeumer, G. Sauder, and U. H. M. Spandau, “Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for diabetic macular edema: a prospective, randomized study,” Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 200–207, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M. C. Gillies, J. M. Simpson, C. Gaston et al., “Five-year results of a randomized trial with open-label extension of triamcinolone acetonide for refractory diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology, vol. 116, no. 11, pp. 2182–2187, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. D. Eliott, P. U. Dugel, H. L. Cantrill et al., “I-vation TA: 18 month results from phase I safety and preliminary efficacy study,” Presented at Annual Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Fort Lauderdale, Fla, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  72. J. B. Jonas, I. Akkoyun, B. Kamppeter, I. Kreissig, and R. F. Degenring, “Branch retinal vein occlusion treated by intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide,” Eye, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 65–71, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. J. Jonas, M. Paques, J. Monés, and A. Glacet-Bernard, “Retinal vein occlusions,” Developments in Ophthalmology, vol. 47, pp. 111–135, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. J. I. Lim, A. E. Fung, M. Wieland, D. Hung, and V. Wong, “Sustained-release intravitreal liquid drug delivery using triamcinolone acetonide for cystoid macular edema in retinal vein occlusion,” Ophthalmology, vol. 118, no. 7, pp. 1416–1422, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. H. Enaida, Y. Hata, A. Ueno et al., “Possible benefits of triamcinolone-assisted pars plana vitrectomy for retinal diseases,” Retina, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 764–770, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. J. B. Jonas and B. Kamppeter, “Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for persisting cystoid macular edema after penetrating keratoplasty,” Cornea, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 240–241, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. J. B. Jonas, U. Vossmerbaeumer, and B. A. Kamppeter, “Chronic prephthisical ocular hypotony treated by intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide,” Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, vol. 82, no. 5, p. 637, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. H. Tamura, K. Miyamoto, J. Kiryu et al., “Intravitreal injection of corticosteroid attenuates leukostasis and vascular leakage in experimental diabetic retina,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1440–1444, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. G. A. Williams, J. A. Haller, B. D. Kuppermann et al., “Dexamethasone posterior-segment drug delivery system in the treatment of macular edema resulting from uveitis or irvine-gass syndrome,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 147, no. 6, pp. 1048–1054, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. H. W. K. Hyung Woo Kwak and D. J. D'Amico, “Evaluation of the retinal toxicity and pharmacokinetics of dexamethasone after intravitreal injection,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 259–266, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. J. A. Haller, B. D. Kuppermann, M. S. Blumenkranz et al., “Randomized controlled trial of an intravitreous dexamethasone drug delivery system in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 128, no. 3, pp. 289–296, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. J.-E. Chang-Lin, M. Attar, A. A. Acheampong et al., “Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a sustained-release dexamethasone intravitreal implant,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 80–86, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. J. A. Haller, F. Bandello, R. Belfort Jr. et al., “Randomized, sham-controlled trial of dexamethasone intravitreal implant in patients with macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion,” Ophthalmology, vol. 117, no. 6, pp. 1134–1146, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. B. D. Kuppermann, M. S. Blumenkranz, J. A. Haller et al., “Randomized controlled study of an intravitreous dexamethasone drug delivery system in patients with persistent macular edema,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 125, no. 3, pp. 309–317, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. D. S. Boyer, D. Faber, S. Gupta et al., “Dexamethasone intravitreal implant for treatment of diabetic macular edema in vitrectomized patients,” Retina, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 915–923, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. A. J. Augustin, S. Puls, and I. Offermann, “Triple therapy for choroidal neovascularization due to age-related macular degeneration: verteporfin PDT, bevacizumab, and dexamethasone,” Retina, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 133–140, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. S. J. Bakri, S. M. Couch, C. A. McCannel, and A. O. Edwards, “Same-day triple therapy with photodynamic therapy, intravitreal dexamethasone, and bevacizumab in wet age-related macular degeneration,” Retina, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 573–578, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. D. Ehmann and R. García, “Triple therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (verteporfin photodynamic therapy, intravitreal dexamethasone, and intravitreal bevacizumab),” Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 36–40, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. B. Kupperman, “Safety and efficacy of dexamethasone intravitreal implant as adjunctive therapy to Lucentis in patients with choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration,” in Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Macular Society Meeting, Tucson, Ariz, USA, February 2010.
  90. A. Loewenstein, B. D. Kuppermann, D. Weinberger et al., “Safety and efficacy of Ozurdex (dexamethasone intravitreal implant) as adjunctive therapy to Lucentis in patients with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD),” Paper Presented at: Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, May 2010, Fort Lauderdale, Fla, USA.
  91. M. Singer, S. S. Patel, H. S. Uy, X.-Y. Li, C. Liu, and S. M. Whitcup, “Dexamethasone intravitreal implant alone and as an adjunct to ranibizumab for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration,” Paper Presented at: Retina Society Annual Meeting, Rome, Italy, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  92. QLT, “QLT Announces final results from its RADICAL study evaluating Verteporfin PDT,” (Visudyne) combination therapy in exudative AMD, 2012.
  93. C. Lowder, R. Belfort Jr., S. Lightman et al., “Dexamethasone intravitreal implant for noninfectious intermediate or posterior uveitis,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 129, no. 5, pp. 545–553, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. J.-Y. Driot, G. D. Novack, K. D. Rittenhouse, C. Milazzo, and P. A. Pearson, “Ocular pharmacokinetics of fluocinolone acetonide after Retisert intravitreal implantation in rabbits over a 1-year period,” Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 269–275, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. G. J. Jaffe, C. H. Yang, H. Guo, J. P. Denny, C. Lima, and P. Ashton, “Safety and pharmacokinetics of an intraocular fluocinolone acetonide sustained delivery device,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 3569–3575, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. G. J. Jaffe, D. Martin, D. Callanan, P. A. Pearson, B. Levy, and T. Comstock, “Fluocinolone acetonide implant (retisert) for noninfectious posterior uveitis. Thirty-four-week results of a multicenter randomized clinical study,” Ophthalmology, vol. 113, no. 6, pp. 1020–1027, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. P. A. Campochiaro, D. M. Brown, A. Pearson et al., “Sustained delivery fluocinolone acetonide vitreous inserts provide benefit for at least 3 years in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology, vol. 119, no. 10, pp. 2125–2132, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  98. I. U. Scott and H. W. Flynn Jr., “Reducing the risk of endophthalmitis following intravitreal injections,” Retina, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 10–12, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. J. B. Jonas, I. Kreissig, and R. F. Degenring, “Endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 121, no. 11, pp. 1663–1664, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. J. B. Jonas, I. Kreissig, U. H. Spandau, and B. Harder, “Infectious and noninfectious endophthalmitis after intravitreal high-dosage triamcinolone acetonide,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 141, no. 3, pp. 579–580, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. J. L. Carrero, M. G. Barcia, and I. P. Flores, “Sterile endophthalmitis after benzyl alcohol-filtered triamcinolone acetonide injection,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 126, no. 1, pp. 142–143, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. F. K. P. Sutter and M. C. Gillies, “Pseudo-endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection of triamcinolone,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 87, no. 8, pp. 972–974, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. H. Y. Park, K. Yi, and H. K. Kim, “Intraocular pressure elevation after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection,” Korean Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 122–127, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. S. J. Bakri and P. M. Beer, “The effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide on intraocular pressure,” Ophthalmic Surgery Lasers and Imaging, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 386–390, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. M. Detry-Morel, A. Escarmelle, and I. Hermans, “Refractory ocular hypertension secondary to intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide,” Bulletin de la Societe Belge d'Ophtalmologie, vol. 292, pp. 45–51, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. J. B. Jonas, R. Degenring, U. Vossmerbauemer, and B. Kamppeter, “Frequency of cataract surgery after intravitreal injection of high-dosage triamcinolone acetonide,” European Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 462–464, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. M. C. Gillies, F. M. A. Islam, M. Zhu, J. Larsson, and T. Y. Wong, “Efficacy and safety of multiple intravitreal triamcinolone injections for refractory diabetic macular oedema,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 91, no. 10, pp. 1323–1326, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. O. Çekiç, S. Chang, J. J. Tseng, Y. Akar, G. R. Barile, and W. M. Schiff, “Cataract progression after intravitreal triamcinolone injection,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 139, no. 6, pp. 993–998, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. J. B. Jonas, R. Degenring, I. Kreissig, and I. Akkoyun, “Safety of intravitreal high-dose reinjections of triamcinolone acetonide,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 138, no. 6, pp. 1054–1055, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. Y. Lang, E. Zemel, B. Miller, and I. Perlman, “Retinal toxicity of intravitreal Kenalog in albino rabbits,” Retina, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 778–788, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. K. Tokuda, T. Tsukamoto, S. Fujisawa, and M. Matsubara, “Evaluation of toxicity due to vital stains in isolated rat retinas,” Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 189–194, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. M. Kivilcim, G. A. Peyman, E.-S. El-Dessouky, A. A. Kazi, R. Cheema, and H. Hegazy, “Retinal toxicity of triamcinolone acetonide in silicone-filled eyes,” Ophthalmic Surgery and Lasers, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 474–478, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. R. Narayanan, J. K. Mungcal, M. C. Kenney, G. M. Seigel, and B. D. Kuppermann, “Toxicity of triamcinolone acetonide on retinal neurosensory and pigment epithelial cells,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 722–728, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. C. K. Yeung, K. P. Chan, S. W. Y. Chiang, C. P. Pang, and D. S. C. Lam, “The toxic and stress responses of cultured human retinal pigment epithelium (ARPE19) and human glial cells (SVG) in the presence of triamcinolone,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 5293–5300, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. J. A. Haller, P. Dugel, D. V. Weinberg, C. Chou, and S. M. Whitcup, “Evaluation of the safety and performance of an applicator for a novel intravitreal dexamethasone drug delivery system for the treatment of macular edema,” Retina, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 46–51, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus