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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2015, Article ID 189135, 9 pages
Review Article

Iodine-131 Metaiodobenzylguanidine Therapy for Neuroblastoma: Reports So Far and Future Perspective

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kanazawa University Hospital, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-8641, Japan

Received 24 June 2014; Accepted 1 August 2014

Academic Editor: Takahiro Higuchi

Copyright © 2015 Daiki Kayano and Seigo Kinuya. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Neuroblastoma, which derives from neural crest, is the most common extracranial solid cancer in childhood. The tumors express the norepinephrine (NE) transporters on their cell membrane and take in metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) via a NE transporter. Since iodine-131 (I-131) MIBG therapy was firstly reported, many trails of MIBG therapy in patients with neuroblastoma were performed. Though monotherapy with a low dose of I-131 MIBG could achieve high-probability pain reduction, the objective response was poor. In contrast, more than 12 mCi/kg I-131 MIBG administrations with or without hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) obtain relatively good responses in patients with refractory or relapsed neuroblastoma. The combination therapy with I-131 MIBG and other modalities such as nonmyeloablative chemotherapy and myeloablative chemotherapy with HCT improved the therapeutic response in patients with refractory or relapsed neuroblastoma. In addition, I-131 MIBG therapy incorporated in the induction therapy was proved to be feasible in patients with newly diagnosed neuroblastoma. To expand more the use of MIBG therapy for neuroblastoma, further studies will be needed especially in the use at an earlier stage from diagnosis, in the use with other radionuclide formations of MIBG, and in combined use with other therapeutic agents.