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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2015, Article ID 265751, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/265751
Research Article

The Alpaca Melanocortin 1 Receptor: Gene Mutations, Transcripts, and Relative Levels of Expression in Ventral Skin Biopsies

1KVASU Centre for Wildlife Studies, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Pookode, Wayanad, Kerala 673576, India
2School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, Via Gentile III da Varano, 62032 Camerino, Macerata, Italy

Received 30 July 2014; Revised 8 December 2014; Accepted 15 December 2014

Academic Editor: Angelo Facchiano

Copyright © 2015 Bathrachalam Chandramohan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The objectives of the present study were to characterize the MC1R gene, its transcripts and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coat color in alpaca. Full length cDNA amplification revealed the presence of two transcripts, named as F1 and F2, differing only in the length of their 5′-terminal untranslated region (UTR) sequences and presenting a color specific expression. Whereas the F1 transcript was common to white and colored (black and brown) alpaca phenotypes, the shorter F2 transcript was specific to white alpaca. Further sequencing of the MC1R gene in white and colored alpaca identified a total of twelve SNPs; among those nine (four silent mutations (c.126C>A, c.354T>C, c.618G>A, and c.933G>A); five missense mutations (c.82A>G, c.92C>T, c.259A>G, c.376A>G, and c.901C>T)) were observed in coding region and three in the 3′UTR. A 4 bp deletion (c.224 227del) was also identified in the coding region. Molecular segregation analysis uncovered that the combinatory mutations in the MC1R locus could cause eumelanin and pheomelanin synthesis in alpaca. Overall, our data refine what is known about the MC1R gene and provides additional information on its role in alpaca pigmentation.