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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2015, Article ID 284276, 9 pages
Research Article

Energy-Aware Multipath Routing Scheme Based on Particle Swarm Optimization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

1Department of Computer Science and Engineering, SCAD College of Engineering and Technology, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu 627414, India
2Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600 025, India

Received 17 September 2015; Accepted 24 November 2015

Academic Editor: Muthu Ramachandran

Copyright © 2015 Y. Harold Robinson and M. Rajaram. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous mobile nodes forming an ad hoc network without fixed infrastructure. Dynamic topology property of MANET may degrade the performance of the network. However, multipath selection is a great challenging task to improve the network lifetime. We proposed an energy-aware multipath routing scheme based on particle swarm optimization (EMPSO) that uses continuous time recurrent neural network (CTRNN) to solve optimization problems. CTRNN finds the optimal loop-free paths to solve link disjoint paths in a MANET. The CTRNN is used as an optimum path selection technique that produces a set of optimal paths between source and destination. In CTRNN, particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is primly used for training the RNN. The proposed scheme uses the reliability measures such as transmission cost, energy factor, and the optimal traffic ratio between source and destination to increase routing performance. In this scheme, optimal loop-free paths can be found using PSO to seek better link quality nodes in route discovery phase. PSO optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to get a better solution with regard to a measure of quality. The proposed scheme discovers multiple loop-free paths by using PSO technique.