Table 2: Short and long-term effects of tobacco smoking on exhaled breath condensate.

BiomarkersImmediate effectLong-term effect

pH in healthy smokers [121, 122] in healthy smokers with <10 py [122, 126]
in healthy smokers with >10 py [122, 126]
in healthy smokers [41]
in smokers with allergic rhinitis [123]
in smokers with bronchial asthma [121, 124]
after SHS in healthy nonsmokers [130]

H2O2 after SHS in healthy nonsmokers [130]

8-Isoprostane [121]
[46]

ILs
 IL-4, 5, 10, 17 after waterpipe smoking [125]
 IL-6 [116, 127], correlated with FVC, FEV1, and eCO levels and smoking duration [127, 128]
 IL-8 [122] [127, 128]

TNF-α, correlated with FVC and FEV1 values [129]

INF-γ after waterpipe smoking [125]

Nitrates [45]

LTB4 [116], in smokers with allergic rhinitis [130]

EBC electric conductivity (μS) [122]

Haemoglobin β-chainDetected [144]

Data represent changes after cigarette smoking. When changes refer to secondhand cigarette smoking or other tobacco product effects, there is a special reference inside the table.
= increase, = reduction, = no significant change, and [] = corresponding reference.
py = pack-years, SHS = secondhand cigarette smoking, H2O2 = hydrogen peroxide, ILs = interleukins, TNF-a = tumor necrosis factor-a, INF-γ = interferon-γ, and LTB4 = leukotriene-B4.