Table 4: Exhaled breath condensate biomarkers in lung cancer.

Biomarkers Lung Cancer

H2O2, correlated with urine-MDA [156]

Inflammatory markers
 ILs
  IL-2 [158]NSCLC
  IL-6 [157, 169]
  IL-17 [169]
 TNF-α [158, 159, 161]
 IL-1β, IL-6 after lobectomy or pneumonectomy [164]
 IL-8, TNF-a, sICAM-1

Leptin in NSCLC [158]

ET-1 in NSCLC [160]

VEGF [159, 161, 165], correlated with IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α, and with tumor diameter in CT [159]NSCLC
after chemotherapy [165]

bFGF in NSCLC and after chemotherapy [165]

COX-2 in NSCLC patients along with the disease stage [160]
survivin

MMP-9 in NSCLC patients along with the disease stage [158]

GRTP-1Detected in a single NSCLC patient [159]

CCL28 in lung cancer [162]
no difference in cytokine signals [163]
MIP-3
GRo-a

Eotaxin-2 in lung cancer [162]
no difference in cytokine signals [163]
Eotaxin-3
FGF-6
FGF-7
IL-10

Tumor markers
 CEA in NSCLC and strongly correlated with histological type [169]
 SCC
 NSE

Genomic analysis
 Somatic mutations of p53 Detected [170]
 Microsatelite DNA instability and loss of heterozygosity:
  3p chromosome (locus D3S2338, D3S1266, D3S1304, D3S1289)
Detected in NSCLC patients [171]
 loss of heterozygosity: 3p chromosome (locus D3S1289)Correlated with negative prognostic value in adenocarcinoma and poor prognosis in NSCLC [172]
 Microsatelite DNA instability and loss of heterozygosity:
  3p chromosome (locus D3S2338)
Correlated with poor survival among patients with squamous cell lung carcinoma [173]
 ERCC1 and ERCC2 genes (chromosome 19q)Increased risk of NSCLC among smokers [174]
 miRNA miRNA-21 with miRNA-486: proposed as screening test for NSCLC diagnosis [175]
 KRAS mutation in codon 12 after NSCLC resection surgery [176]
 Methylation of DAPK, PAX5β, and p16 genesDetected in patients with NSCLC [6, 177]
 HPV genomeDetected in patients with NSCLC [178]

= increase, = reduction, = no significant change, and [] = corresponding reference.
H2O2 = hydrogen peroxide, MDA = malondialdehyde, NSCLC = non-small cell lung cancer, ILs = interleukins, TNF-a = tumour necrosis factor-a, ET-1 = endothelin-1, VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor, bFGF = basic fibroblast growth factor, COX-2 = cyclooxygenase-2, MMP-9 = metalloproteinase-9, GRTP-1 = growth hormone regulated TBC protein-1, CCL-28 = mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine (MEC), MIP = macrophage inflammatory proteins, GRO-a = growth related oncogene-a, FGF-6 = fibroblast growth factor-6, FGF-7 = fibroblast growth factor-7, CEA = carcinoembryonic antigen, SCC = squamous cell carcinoma antigen, NSE = neuron-specific enolase, miRNA = micro-RNA, and HPV = human papillomavirus.