Table 5: Exhaled breath condensate biomarkers in several lung and systemic diseases.

DiseaseBiomarkersChanges

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)8-Isoprostane
H2O2
3-nitrotyrosine

docosatetraenoyl-LPA
[194, 195]

Cystic fibrosis (CF)pH, and during exacerbation [196, 201], [197]
Nitrotyrosine [198], 3-nitrotyrosine [199]
Nitrites [200, 201]
Nitric oxide, correlated with disease severity [201]
8-Isoprostane, marker of CF exacerbation [201]
IL-6 during exacerbation, and after treatment [203, 204]
IL-8 in stable CF [202], in CF exacerbation, and after treatment [203, 204]
IL-5
TNF-α
Detected in paediatric CF population [208]
LTE4 during exacerbation, and after treatment [203, 204]

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)Natriuretic peptide
pro-BNP
ET-1
Higher levels in IPAH versus COPD-PAH [206]
ET-1 in COPD-PAH, correlated with PASP [208]
6-keto-
8-isoprostane
IL-6
Higher levels in COPD-PAH versus IPAH [207]

Sarcoidosis8-Isoprostane
Cys-LTs
in both EBC and BAL [9]
Neopterin
TGF-β1
[210]

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSA)
 Pediatric patients8-Isoprostane
IL-6
in patients with clinical score >40, correlated with cardiac dysfunction [211]
LTB4
Cys-LTs
in patients with AHI >5/h [212]
H2O2 [213]
Uric salts [214]
 Adult patients8-Isoprostane [215217], correlated with AHI and neck periphery, and after CPAP therapy [215]
IL-6 [216, 217]
TNF- [216, 217]
pH [217]
H2O2, and after after CPAP therapy [218]
ICAM-1
IL-8
in both healthy obese and obese OSA-patients [219]

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 in both EBC and BAL [220, 221], significantly correlated with the disease activity

Chronic Renal Disease (CRD)pH
Nitrites
Nitrates
, and after haemodialysis [222]
H2O2 in patients with severe uremia, who underwent haemodialysis [223]

= increase, = reduction, = no significant change, and [] = corresponding reference.
H2O2 = hydrogen peroxide, = nitric oxides, ILs = interleukins, TNF-a = tumor necrosis factor-a, LTE4 = leukotriene-E4, pro-BNP = pro-brain natriuretic peptide, ET-1 = endothelin-1, LTs = leukotrienes, TGF-β1 = transforming growth factor-β1, LTB4 = leukotriene-B4, and ICAM-1 = intercellular adhesion molecule-1.