The Scientific World Journal

Volume 2015, Article ID 475806, 9 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/475806

## A Double Herd Krill Based Algorithm for Location Area Optimization in Mobile Wireless Cellular Network

^{1}RVS Technical Campus, Coimbatore 641 402, India^{2}Hindusthan College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore 641 032, India

Received 20 August 2014; Revised 27 October 2014; Accepted 28 October 2014

Academic Editor: S. N. Deepa

Copyright © 2015 F. Vincylloyd and B. Anand. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

In wireless communication systems, mobility tracking deals with determining a mobile subscriber (MS) covering the area serviced by the wireless network. Tracking a mobile subscriber is governed by the two fundamental components called location updating (LU) and paging. This paper presents a novel hybrid method using a krill herd algorithm designed to optimize the location area (LA) within available spectrum such that total network cost, comprising location update (LU) cost and cost for paging, is minimized without compromise. Based on various mobility patterns of users and network architecture, the design of the LR area is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem. Numerical results indicate that the proposed model provides a more accurate update boundary in real environment than that derived from a hexagonal cell configuration with a random walk movement pattern. The proposed model allows the network to maintain a better balance between the processing incurred due to location update and the radio bandwidth utilized for paging between call arrivals.

#### 1. Introduction

Location areas represent a significant strategy of location management, used to reduce signalling traffic imposed by location updating and paging messages in mobile cellular networks. Due to the increasing dimension spaces to be searched, the location of optimal LAs represents a NP-hard optimization problem. In contrast to a landline telephonic network, mobile wireless cellular network (MWCN) accommodates dynamically relocatable service users with whom location uncertainty is always associated. To reduce this location uncertainty, each mobile terminal has to report its location information in regular interval, which is called an LU procedure. In dynamic LU scheme, the frequency of LU performed by a mobile terminal (MT) depends upon a stochastic phenomenon, which is user’s movement behavior [1–6].

Upon the arrival of a mobile-terminated call, it is the responsibility of the network to search for the terminal for delivering the call successfully. This search is an iterative process, which continues until the terminal is successfully located. The frequency of paging to be performed by the network, per user, depends upon another stochastic phenomenon, which is incoming call arrival process for each user [7].

Since LU and paging process both consume sufficient amount of radio resource, cost is incurred for performing an LU as well as for paging. Both of these processes are coupled in a sense that there is an inherent trade-off between these two cost components, and these two together determine the total network cost. The size of the LA, in particular, affects the signalling load generated due to paging and LU. From a designer’s point of view, it is required to find out an optimum size of LA such that the desired cost effectiveness can be achieved.

More precisely, the location area (LA) planning represents a vital role in cellular networks because of the trade-off created by paging and registration signaling. The upper bound on the size of an LA is the service area of a mobile switching center (MSC). In that extreme case, the cost of paging is at its highest, but no registration is needed. On the other hand, if each cell is an LA, the paging cost is minimal, but the registration cost is the most. In general, the most important component of these costs is the load on the signaling resources. Between the extremes lie one or more partitions of the MSC service area that minimize the total cost of paging and registration. The present work falls into the class of location area planning (LAP) problem [8, 9].

For hexagonal cell configuration, [10] had tried to find out optimum movement threshold value, which would, in effect, determine the number of cells, which collectively could be considered as a dynamic optimal LA (as it depends upon two stochastic phenomena, namely, call arrival pattern and microscopic behavioural pattern of terminal mobility). Due to the uniqueness of design considerations and problem formulation in [10], they used GA and SA method to solve the problem and have compared the quality of solutions found by each for different inputs.

In fact, there is a growing body of literature in the application of emerging heuristics to solve the optimizing problems in various fields of science and engineering, but there is a huge vacuum in the application of heuristics for the location area (LA) problem. This paper proposes a Krill Herd based algorithm for minimizing total network cost, comprising location update (LU) cost and cost for paging. Krill herd algorithm (KHA) is a recently developed powerful evolutionary algorithm proposed by Gandomi and Alavi [11]. The KHA is based on the herding behaviour of krill individuals. Each krill individual modifies its position using three processes, namely, (1) movement induced by other individuals, (2) foraging motion, and (3) random physical diffusion.

Although some may disagree that a suitable algorithm design would assure a high probability of finding solution, population size does indirectly contribute to the effectiveness and efficiency of the performance of an algorithm [12]. The prime deciding factor of population size on any population-based heuristic algorithms is the execution cost. If an algorithm involves large population size, it will search thoroughly and increase the chance of exploring the entire search space and locating possible good solutions but unavoidably bear an unwanted and high computational cost. The other version is if an algorithm with small population size may suffer from premature convergence or may search partially the search space. Perhaps suggesting heuristically a suitable population size may be adequate because one need not know the exact fitness landscape to solve a complex optimization problem. Hence, a compromised, yet effective, solution would be dynamically adjusting the population size to explore the search space in balance between computational cost and the attained performance [13].

In this paper, the basic KHA is enhanced by incorporating a dual population criterion to find an optimal solution of the above problem. There are few literatures that tackle the issue of population size with various heuristics [14–16]. The rest of paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, the system as well as the proposed model in [10] is revisited. In Section 2.3, the constrained cost optimization problem for LA planning is mathematically formulated. In Section 3.1, the KHA technique is overviewed in general and then the KHA based algorithm is proposed for solving the problem of interest. In Section 3.1.1, the dual herd KHA based algorithm is discussed. In Section 4.2, some representative results are presented. Section 5 concludes the present work.

#### 2. System and Model Description

##### 2.1. System Description

Figure 1 shows that the cellular network coverage area is comprised of hexagonal shaped cells. The entire coverage area is partitioned into rings of cells. The center cell is defined to be a cell where an MT has performed the last LU. An MT resides in each cell it enters, for a generally distributed time interval and then it can move to any of the neighbouring cells. The movement of an MT is assumed to be a simple random walk [17]. The next LU is performed by the MT, when the number of cell boundary crossings, since the last LU, equals a threshold value . It is also assumed that MTs move in a radial direction as shown in Figure 1.