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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2015, Article ID 480728, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/480728
Review Article

Hypotensive Anesthesia versus Normotensive Anesthesia during Major Maxillofacial Surgery: A Review of the Literature

1The Department of Anesthesiology, Rambam Health Care Campus and the Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, 31069 Haifa, Israel
2The Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Rambam Health Care Campus and the Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, 31069 Haifa, Israel
3The Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Baruch Padeh Medical Center and the Faculty of Medicine, Bar-Ilan University, Poriya, 15208 Tiberias, Israel

Received 9 July 2014; Accepted 19 August 2014

Academic Editor: Izhar Ben-Shlomo

Copyright © 2015 Michal Barak et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Steady blood pressure within normal limits during surgery is one of the markers of the ideal and skillful anesthesia. Yet, reduced blood pressure is advantageous in some settings because it can contribute to a reduction in overall blood loss and improve the surgical field conditions. Controlled hypotension during anesthesia or hypotensive anesthesia is often used in major maxillofacial operations. Since hypotensive anesthesia carries the risk of hypoperfusion to important organs and tissues, mainly the brain, heart, and kidneys, it cannot be applied safely in all patients. In this paper we review the medical literature regarding hypotensive anesthesia during major maxillofacial surgery, the means to achieve it, and the risks and benefits of this technique, in comparison to normotensive anesthesia.