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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2015, Article ID 562693, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/562693
Research Article

Potential Biosorbent Derived from Calligonum polygonoides for Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution

1Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology, Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 28100, Pakistan
2PETRONAS Ionic Liquid Centre, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia
3Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
4Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia
5Riyadh Community College, King Saud University, Riyadh 11437, Saudi Arabia

Received 23 July 2014; Revised 10 September 2014; Accepted 17 September 2014

Academic Editor: Guangliang Liu

Copyright © 2015 Asma Nasrullah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The ash of C. polygonoides (locally called balanza) was collected from Lakki Marwat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and was utilized as biosorbent for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The ash was used as biosorbent without any physical or chemical treatment. The biosorbent was characterized by using various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size and surface area were measured using particle size analyzer and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation (BET), respectively. The SEM and BET results expressed that the adsorbent has porous nature. Effects of various conditions such as initial concentration of methylene blue (MB), initial pH, contact time, dosage of biosorbent, and stirring rate were also investigated for the adsorption process. The rate of the adsorption of MB on biomass sample was fast, and equilibrium has been achieved within 1 hour. The kinetics of MB adsorption on biosorbent was studied by pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the pseudo-second-order has better mathematical fit with correlation coefficient value () of 0.999. The study revealed that C. polygonoides ash proved to be an effective, alternative, inexpensive, and environmentally benign biosorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution.