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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 657086, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/657086
Review Article

Exosomes: Novel Biomarkers for Clinical Diagnosis

1Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, China
2Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, China

Received 17 September 2014; Accepted 8 January 2015

Academic Editor: Hiroshi Wakao

Copyright © 2015 Jin Lin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Exosomes are 30–120 nm endocytic membrane-derived vesicles that participate in cell-to-cell communication and protein and RNA delivery. Exosomes harbor a variety of proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids and are present in many and perhaps all bodily fluids. A significant body of literature has demonstrated that molecular constituents of exosomes, especially exosomal proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs), hold great promise as novel biomarkers for clinical diagnosis. In this minireview, we summarize recent advances in the research of exosomal biomarkers and their potential application in clinical diagnostics. We also provide a brief overview of the formation, function, and isolation of exosomes.