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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2015, Article ID 835405, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/835405
Review Article

Laser Teeth Bleaching: Evaluation of Eventual Side Effects on Enamel and the Pulp and the Efficiency In Vitro and In Vivo

1Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology, Ghent Dental Laser Centre, Ghent Dental Photonics Research Cluster, Ghent University, Ghent University Hospital, Dental School, De Pintelaan 185-P8, 9000 Gent, Belgium
2Department of Clinical Neurosciences, John van Geest Centre for Brain Repair and Wellcome Trust-Medical Research Council Stem Cell Institute, University of Cambridge, Clifford Allbutt Building, Cambridge Biosciences Campus, Cambridge, CB2 0QH, UK
3SOLA Academy, Bernhard Gottlieb University Clinic of Dentistry, Sensengasse 2A, 1090 Vienna, Austria

Received 15 August 2014; Revised 13 November 2014; Accepted 13 November 2014

Academic Editor: Toni Zeinoun

Copyright © 2015 Roeland Jozef Gentil De Moor et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Light and heat increase the reactivity of hydrogen peroxide. There is no evidence that light activation (power bleaching with high-intensity light) results in a more effective bleaching with a longer lasting effect with high concentrated hydrogen peroxide bleaching gels. Laser light differs from conventional light as it requires a laser-target interaction. The interaction takes place in the first instance in the bleaching gel. The second interaction has to be induced in the tooth, more specifically in the dentine. There is evidence that interaction exists with the bleaching gel: photothermal, photocatalytical, and photochemical interactions are described. The reactivity of the gel is increased by adding photocatalyst of photosensitizers. Direct and effective photobleaching, that is, a direct interaction with the colour molecules in the dentine, however, is only possible with the argon (488 and 415 nm) and KTP laser (532 nm). A number of risks have been described such as heat generation. Nd:YAG and especially high power diode lasers present a risk with intrapulpal temperature elevation up to 22°C. Hypersensitivity is regularly encountered, being it of temporary occurrence except for a number of diode wavelengths and the Nd:YAG. The tooth surface remains intact after laser bleaching. At present, KTP laser is the most efficient dental bleaching wavelength.