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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 4089036, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4089036
Research Article

Etherification of Glycerol with Propylene or 1-Butene for Fuel Additives

1Program of Petrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
3Materials Chemistry and Catalysis Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand

Correspondence should be addressed to Duangamol Nuntasri Tungasmita

Received 1 February 2017; Revised 4 May 2017; Accepted 14 May 2017; Published 3 August 2017

Academic Editor: Renato Dalpozzo

Copyright © 2017 Chakrapong Saengarun et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The etherification of glycerol with propylene over acidic heterogeneous catalysts, Amberlyst-15, S100, and S200 resins, produced mono-propyl glycerol ethers (MPGEs), 1,3-di- and 1,2-di-propyl glycerol ethers (DPGEs), and tri-propyl glycerol ether (TPGE). The propylation of glycerol over Amberlyst-15 yielded only TPGE. The glycerol etherification with 1-butene over Amberlyst-15 and S200 resins produced 1-mono-, 2-mono-, 1,2-di-, and 1,3-di-butyl glycerol ethers (1-MBGE, 2-MBGE, 1,2-DBGE, and 1,3-DBGE). The use of Amberlyst-15 resulted in the propylation and butylation of glycerol with higher yields than those obtained from the S100 and S200 resins. The PGEs, TPGE, and BGEs were evaluated as cold flow improvers and octane boosters. These alkyl glycerol ethers can reduce the cloud point of blended palm biodiesels with diesel. They can increase the research octane number and the motor octane number of gasoline.