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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2018, Article ID 5764187, 6 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5764187
Research Article

Control of Cryptococcus Gattii Biofilms by an Ethanolic Extract of Cochlospermum Regium (Schrank) Pilger Leaves

1Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS 79070-900, Brazil
2Faculdade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS 79804-970, Brazil
3Faculdade de Ciências Biológicas e Ambientais, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS 79804-970, Brazil
4Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS 79804-970, Brazil
5Departamento de Análise Clínicas e Biomedicina, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, PR 87020-900, Brazil

Correspondence should be addressed to Adriana A. Almeida-Apolonio; moc.liamtoh@a.ojuaraa

Received 19 March 2018; Revised 22 April 2018; Accepted 8 May 2018; Published 6 June 2018

Academic Editor: Carlos H. G. Martins

Copyright © 2018 Adriana A. Almeida-Apolonio et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cryptococcus gattii is an etiologic agent of cryptococcosis and a serious disease that affects immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients worldwide. The therapeutic arsenal used to treat cryptococcosis is limited to a few antifungal agents, and the ability of C. gattii to form biofilms may hinder treatment and decrease its susceptibility to antifungal agents. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal and antibiofilm activities of an ethanolic extract of Cochlospermum regium (Schrank) Pilger leaves against C. gattii. The antifungal activity was assessed by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the broth microdilution technique and interaction of the extract with fluconazole was performed of checkerboard assay. The antibiofilm activity of the extract was evaluated in 96-well polystyrene microplates, and the biofilms were quantified by counting colony forming units. The extract showed antifungal activity at concentrations of 62.5 to 250 μg/mL and when the extract was evaluated in combination with fluconazole, C. gattii was inhibited at sub-MIC levels. The antibiofilm activity of the extract against C. gattii was observed both during biofilm formation and on an already established biofilm. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of the leaves of C. regium shows promise for the development of antifungal drugs to treat cryptococcosis and to combat C. gattii biofilms.