A Narrative Review of Nutritional Malpractices, Motivational Drivers, and Consequences in Pregnant Women: Evidence from Recent Literature and Program Implications in EthiopiaRead the full article
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Predicting the Mesiodistal Crown Dimensions of the Permanent First Molars from the Deciduous Second Molars
Background. This study aims to formulate regression equations that predict the mesiodistal crown widths of the permanent first molars utilizing the mesiodistal crown widths of the deciduous second molars. Methods. Fifty pairs of study models belonging to 50 Iraqi children aged eight to nine years with sound mixed dentition were used to measure the mesiodistal crown widths of the permanent first molars and deciduous second molars using a pointed digital sliding caliper with 0.01 mm sensitivity. Side and gender differences were assessed, and the correlations between these teeth were obtained to develop the regression equations. Results. The results revealed no significant side differences, so the samples were merged and analyzed for gender differences, which were found to be significant in all examined teeth except the mandibular permanent first molar. Direct, moderate, and highly significant correlations between the mesiodistal crown widths of the permanent first molars and deciduous second molars were found, which led to the development of regression equations. After applying these equations, the resultant predicted widths were compared to the actual widths, and the results revealed nonsignificant method differences. Conclusions. A new method was developed to predict the widths of permanent first molars from the adjacent primary second molars with high precision.
Chemical Composition and Digestibility of Major Feed Resources in Tanqua-Abergelle District of Central Tigray, Northern Ethiopia
Background. A detailed study on the feed quantity and quality is required to document the available feeds and their nutritional values. Aim. The study was aimed to investigate and document the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of major feed resources available in Tanqua-Abergelle district of central Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Methods. Ten different feed resources were evaluated for their nutritive values. Representative feed samples were collected and prepared following appropriate procedures. The samples were subjected to analysis of chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) using proper scientific procedures. Results. Wide variations were observed in nutritive values of the investigated feeds. The highest crude protein (CP) was measured in Atella (15.90%) followed by green grass (13.20%), mill waste (10.90%), groundnut straw (9.18%), and cowpea straw (8.11%) in descending order. Mill waste (11.84 MJ/kg DM) and Atella (11.81 MJ/kg DM) had the highest metabolizable energy (ME) followed by green grass (9.83 MJ/kg DM), groundnut straw (9.28 MJ/kg DM), Teff straw (8.56 MJ/kg DM), and cowpea straw (8.39 MJ/kg DM) in that order. The highest NDF was recorded in groundnut null (79.80%) and the lowest NDF in mill waste (35.00%) and Atella (40.60%). The highest IVDMD was seen in mill waste (81.43%) and Atella (81.21%) and the lowest in groundnut hull (39.95%). Conclusion. The nonconventional feeds have moderate protein and reduced fiber contents, and thus, they can be utilized as supplement for poor-quality feeds. These feeds need further investigation using animals to substantiate the current study.
Geospatial Assessment of Floods in Western Nepal
Floods are major problems, and their coexistence poses a potent threat, which cannot be eradicated but has to be managed. Extreme affects untold numbers of people, taxing economies, disrupting food production, creating unrest, and prompting migrations. There is much more that can be done to understand the effects of floods, particularly to help protect the poorest and most vulnerable. This research was carried out in the affected area of Bhimdatta municipality and aimed to find out the flood event of 2013 and present the scenario done for flood disaster management. The primary data were collected by direct observation and key informant survey. Landsat images were downloaded from USGS websites, and secondary information was collected through previous research and articles. The data were analyzed by using ArcGIS. It was found that the flood had created a negligible impact on the forest, high impact on the river itself, and average impact on land. 0.13% of forests, 17.38% of land, and 82.48% of river bodies were affected by the flood of 2013. Different governmental and nongovernmental organizations played an effective role for flood disaster management.
Influence of Dentin Priming with Tannin-Rich Plant Extracts on the Longevity of Bonded Composite Restorations
Objective. This in vitro study evaluated the influence of bioactive plant extracts as dentin biomodifying agents to improve the longevity of bonded restorations. For that, plant extracts were applied to the dentin surface prior to the adhesive system. Materials and Methods. Bovine incisors were ground flat to obtain 2 mm thick slices in which conical preparations were made (N = 10). Tannin-containing plant extracts were applied to dentin before the application of the restorative system, as follows: control group (untreated, CTL), chlorhexidine 0.12% (CHX), mastruz (Dysphania ambrosioides, MTZ), cat’s claw (Uncaria tomentosa, CTC), guarana (Paullinia cupana, GUA), galla chinensis (Rhus chinensis, GCH), and tannic acid (extracted from Acacia decurrens, TNA). The push-out bond strength test was conducted (0.5 mm/min). Dentin biomodification was assessed by the modulus of elasticity and mass change in bovine tooth sections (0.5 × 1.7 × 7.0 mm). The dentin staining after extract treatments of dentin slices was compared. The dentin surface wettability was also evaluated by means of the contact angles of the adhesive system with the dentin surface and compared with the untreated control group. Data were subjected to ANOVA/Tukey’s test (α = 0.05). Results. The bond strength of the restoratives to dentin was not significantly improved by the plant extracts, irrespective of the evaluation time (). Except for TNA, the elastic modulus of demineralized dentin significantly reduced after treatment with the plant extracts (). The dentin staining correlated with the tannin content of the extracts. The contact angle was significantly reduced when treated with CTC, GCH, and TNA. Conclusions. The tannin-containing extracts had a questionable effect on the longevity of bonded restorations. The dentin modulus was negatively affected by the extract treatments. Although some of the extracts changed the contact angle, which seems to improve the adhesive monomer permeation, the tannin-rich plant extract application prior to adhesive application was proven to be clinically unfeasible due to dentin staining.
Predicting the Most Deleterious Missense Nonsynonymous Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Hennekam Syndrome-Causing CCBE1 Gene, In Silico Analysis
Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome has been linked to single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the CCBE1 (collagen and calcium-binding EGF domains 1) gene. Several bioinformatics methods were used to find the most dangerous nsSNPs that could affect CCBE1 structure and function. Using state-of-the-art in silico tools, this study examined the most pathogenic nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) that disrupt the CCBE1 protein and extracellular matrix remodeling and migration. Our results indicate that seven nsSNPs, rs115982879, rs149792489, rs374941368, rs121908254, rs149531418, rs121908251, and rs372499913, are deleterious in the CCBE1 gene, four (G330E, C102S, C174R, and G107D) of which are the highly deleterious, two of them (G330E and G107D) have never been seen reported in the context of Hennekam syndrome. Twelve missense SNPs, rs199902030, rs267605221, rs37517418, rs80008675, rs116596858, rs116675104, rs121908252, rs147974432, rs147681552, rs192224843, rs139059968, and rs148498685, are found to revert into stop codons. Structural homology-based methods and sequence homology-based tools revealed that 8.8% of the nsSNPs are pathogenic. SIFT, PolyPhen2, M-CAP, CADD, FATHMM-MKL, DANN, PANTHER, Mutation Taster, LRT, and SNAP2 had a significant score for identifying deleterious nsSNPs. The importance of rs374941368 and rs200149541 in the prediction of post-translation changes was highlighted because it impacts a possible phosphorylation site. Gene-gene interactions revealed CCBE1’s association with other genes, showing its role in a number of pathways and coexpressions. The top 16 deleterious nsSNPs found in this research should be investigated further in the future while researching diseases caused CCBE1 gene specifically HS. The FT web server predicted amino acid residues involved in the ligand-binding site of the CCBE1 protein, and two of the substitutions (R167W and T153N) were found to be involved. These highly deleterious nsSNPs can be used as marker pathogenic variants in the mutational diagnosis of the HS syndrome, and this research also offers potential insights that will aid in the development of precision medicines. CCBE1 proteins from Hennekam syndrome patients should be tested in animal models for this purpose.
Effects of Binahong (Anredera cordifolia (Tenore) Steenis) Extracts on the Levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA) in Cataract Goat Lenses
Cataracts are one of the most causes of blindness in the world. Oxidative stress can form pathological conditions such as cataracts. This oxidative stress ability can be measured by the malondialdehyde (MDA) biomarker. Binahong leaves (Anredera cordifolia (Tenore) Steenis) are native plants from Indonesia that are used to treat various diseases including cataract treatment. Binahong leaf (Anredera cordifolia (Tenore) Steenis) has a high amount of flavonoids and is rich in antioxidants that can be used to treat cataracts. Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of binahong leaf extract on the levels of MDA in a goat lens with cataract-induced material. Method. As many as possible, 40 goat eye lenses were divided into several groups, namely, group I normal lenses as controls (glucose 5.5 mM), group II lenses were cataract induced with glucose concentration of 55 mM, group III lenses with glucose 55 mM + binahong leaf extract (100 μg/ml), group IV lens with glucose 55 mM + binahong leaf extract (200 μg/ml), and group V lens with glucose 55 mM + quercetin (positive control). Biochemical parameters measured in the lens homogenate are malondialdehyde lens morphology in all groups’ observations and comparisons made. Results. The results of the study found that the lens group with the addition of binahong extract showed more results transparency compared to lens groups induced by glucose concentrations of 55 mM). This shows that the diabetic cataract group experienced high oxidative stress due to the accumulation of sorbitol compounds derived from glucose which caused turbidity in the goat eye lens and increased levels of lens MDA. Binahong levels at concentrations of 100 or 200 can inhibit MDA production. Conclusion. Binahong (Anredera cordifolia (Tenore) Steenis) extract has the ability to inhibit the production of MDA levels. In glucose-induced goat lenses, binahong extract and quercetin show antioxidant and anticataract properties.